# I Need Help With My Statistics Project:

I want help doing only 3 parts of my statistics project, (Standard Statistic, Bootstrap Distribution, R Code) I have uploaded all the files needed to understand what I want you to do. please read carefully. the deadline is 24 hours. thank you.

• Research Question: Does average blood pressure differ between men and women between the ages of 18 and 65 in Bozeman?
• Observational Units: Men and Women in Bozeman between the ages 18 and 65
• Variables: Whether or not the subject is male or female (categorical/explanatory) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure mmHg (quantitative/response).
• Potential Confounding Variables: There is room for bias as we will be collecting data on individuals that volunteer, Those who volunteer to contribute to our study could have more time than the average person in Bozeman, therefore less stressed and yielding a more healthy blood pressure. As well as they could also decide to not participate which would be a case of response bias.
• Study Design: The study design we will be using will be an observational study as the variables cannot be controlled by any factors in the study. We are simply measuring blood pressure of willing individuals.
• Scope of Inference: Given that we take an appropriate amount of samples in multiple locations in Bozeman, we would be able to generalize the results to the city of Bozeman and those similar. Other environmental factors have effects of blood pressure so the results cannot be generalized to large populations.
• Data Collection Plan: We can look for scientific studies including sources from the CDC, academic journals, and Bozeman databases to get the information we need. We will also add in information for Bozeman and other areas to see if there may be a fluctuation in blood pressure with different surrounding areas to compare our results to. We can collect data from scholarly studies as well.
• Sample Size: 75 women and 75 men (150 total individuals)
• Methods:

a.) Descriptive: A bar plot will be created. The variables being represented in the bar plot will be gender and age. Gender will be on the x-axis because it is the explanatory variable and age will be on the y-axis because it is the response variable. The summary measures that we will be collecting on will include the mean, median, min, max, first quartile and third quartile.

b.) Inferential: A hypothesis test and confidence interval will be performed for the difference (higher/lower) in blood pressures of males and females.

• Importance: This research topic is important in studying the effects of stress on men and women and how to treat men and women patients differently by their predisposition to a higher or lower blood pressure.

Background and Methods

Background:

The mean systolic blood pressure (in mm-Hg) was gathered from either gender for 189 countries from 1989-2008 (Gapminder). Previous studies have tested blood pressure with hemodynamic factors that account for hypertension, there were no differences in office blood pressure, heart rate and body mass index between genders. This knowledge was then used to tailor therapeutic approaches and improve blood pressure control (Ferrario). In another study on hypertension done by the CDC, their reported differences were tested using a t statistic at the p < 0.05 significance level. They found that hypertension was higher in males as well as it increased in age (CDC). In another study done by the ACSH (American Council on Science and Health), hypertension was more prevalent and occurred earlier in women than men. Researchers adjusted for other factors such as smoking, diabetes, cholesterol, and BMI, but the effect was still the same afterward with a slight accentuation. Different physiology accounted for these differences in this particular study (Dinerstein). In our study, we plan on looking at genders across the nation within a 20 year span, and comparing blood pressures between them rather than getting into the more medical aspect of higher blood pressure such as hypertension. It will be interesting to see the comparisons to these past studies and our data that we are analyzing to determine differences in gender, country, and year. Our research question is “Is there any difference in the mean systolic blood pressure of men and women around the globe”?

CDC. “Products – Data Briefs – Number 364 – April 2020.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 Apr. 2020, www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db364.htm.

Carlos M. Ferrario. (2013). Hemodynamic and hormonal patterns of untreated essential hypertension in men and women [pdf]. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1753944713513221

Dinerstein, Chuck. “High Blood Pressure Differs In Women From Men.” American Council on Science and Health, 23 Jan. 2020, www.acsh.org/news/2020/01/21/high-blood-pressure-differs-women-men-14519.

Gapminder. (2008). Blood pressure, men, SBP, mmHg. [data file]. Retrieved from https://www.gapminder.org/data/

Gapminder. (2008). Blood pressure, women, SBP, mmHg. [data file]. Retrieved from https://www.gapminder.org/data/

Methods:

Data Collection:

The data was collected on systolic blood pressure on men and women in 189 different countries. The mean systolic pressure for each country and gender is recorded in the data spreadsheet for each year 1989 through 2008. The number of individuals sampled is not disclosed but it was of statistical significance to be representative mean values for entire countries. The source we used (Gapminder) combines data from multiple sources. Each documentation page has a version number and links to the previous versions. Whenever they update or make changes to the data, they make a new version. The data on blood pressure is calculated as if each country has the same age composition as the rest of the world.

Carlos M. Ferrario. (2013). Hemodynamic and hormonal patterns of untreated essential hypertension in men and women [pdf]. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1753944713513221

Gapminder. (2008). Blood pressure, men, SBP, mmHg. [data file]. Retrieved from https://www.gapminder.org/data/

Gapminder. (2008). Blood pressure, women, SBP, mmHg. [data file]. Retrieved from https://www.gapminder.org/data/

Variables:

• Country of origin: categorical/explanatory
• Gender (men or female): categorical/explanatory
• Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg): quantitative/response
• Time (years): quantitative/explanatory

Statistical Methods:

a.) In order to analyze the data, we will compare both the mean systolic blood pressure for the populations of both men and females of each country until we hopefully identify a trend. We believe that the best approach to visually representing the data would be to use a dot plot and even a histogram to better view comparison. In using a dot plot, we would label the x-axis with the country of origin and the y-axis with the systolic blood pressure (in mmHg). There would then be a legend explaining how different colored dots represent different genders. In using a histogram, the x-axis, y-axis, and legend would be labeled the same but with a different format, comparing each bar side-to-side.

b.)  The population mean, represented by μ, will be substantial in generalizing results and determining an accurate average. Finding a p-value from the data set will also yield important information as to whether there is evidence against the null hypothesis.  By using these visual representations, we will be able to see any trends and correlation between gender and systolic blood pressure.

c.) HA: There is a difference in the systolic blood pressures of women and men

d.) Our confidence interval will estimate the average difference in the systolic blood pressure means between men and women

e.) We are going to be using a theory-based approach because we are using already existing data to draw our own conclusions based on our hypothesis.

Results:
The population mean of systolic blood pressure of males in the US between the years
1980 to 2008 was 126.414 mmHg while the mean for females was only 121.483 mmHg.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Appendix:
H 0
: The mean systolic blood pressure of men is equal to that of women women
H a
: The mean systolic blood pressure of men is not equal to that of women
H 0
: μ 1
= μ 2
H a
: μ 1
≠ μ 2
Standard Statistic:
Bootstrap Distribution:
R Code

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