1. A sign for a gender-neutral bathroom on a college campus attracts a lot of attention, gossip, and conversation because
|a.||it challenges the binary script that places people in two clear-cut categories.|
|b.||a gender-neutral bathroom would have no uses.|
|c.||people are open to such an arrangement.|
1. “No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which Negro men are placed.” This Alabama law is an example of __________ Laws.
|b.||Civil War era|
1. Tiger Woods’ mother is half Thai, one-quarter Chinese, and one-quarter white. His father is half black, one-quarter Chinese, and one-quarter American Indian. Tiger appears “black.” Tiger’s physical appearance reflects the importance of ___________ in regard to racial classification.
1. Norms governing female body language suggest all but which one of the following?
1. Robyn noticed that international students on campus tend to interact with each other and seem to avoid interaction with Americans. The same is true for American-born students. This situation is an example of
|b.||melting pot assimilation|
1. Women who work in male-dominated occupations can encounter a barrier that prevents them from rising past a certain level in an organization. This barrier is known as the
1. ________________ is the process of introducing products into the market by using advertising and sales campaigns that promise consumers they will achieve gender ideals if they buy them.
|d.||The commercialization of gender ideals|
1. Mary’s supervisor tells her that the only way to prevent theft is to follow black customers as they shop. Mary complies because she does not want to lose her job. Mary is a
1. Some social critics maintain that the U.S. government classifies people of Middle Eastern and Arab ancestry as “white” because
|a.||the Middle East holds important symbolic values that whites with power to classify hoped to associate with their “race.”|
|b.||this ancestry group doesn’t fit clearly into the “black” category.|
|c.||most Middle Easterners self-classify themselves as white.|
|d.||the dominant population classifies Middle Easterners as “white.”|
1. Darius remarks “when people find out that I prefer country music to rap music they are surprised and say things like ‘a black guy who doesn’t like rap? What’s wrong with you?” This illustrates the dynamics underlying
|b.||racial common sense.|
1. Which one of the following occupations is not among the 10 leading occupations of employed women?
|a.||child care workers|
|c.||chief executive officers|
|d.||elementary and middle school teachers|
1. Which one of the following is not one of the six official racial categories in the United States?
|b.||American Indian or Alaskan Native|
|d.||Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander|
1. James identifies himself as just “Irish” even though he knows one of his grandfathers was from Spain. This example speaks to the process of
1. Which of the following characteristics about Samoan society best helps explain how fà-afafines became commonplace in contemporary Samoa?
|a.||Samoans make sharp distinctions between males and females.|
|b.||Close and physically affectionate relations with same-sex people are prohibited.|
|c.||Because there is widespread unemployment in Samoa, men take on fà-afafine roles for status.|
|d.||The declining status of the aumaga has left men without a clear sense of purpose.|
1. ______________ is the physical, behavioral, and mental or emotional traits believed to be characteristic of females.
|b.||A primary sex characteristic|
|c.||A secondary sex characteristic|
1. According to sociologist Erving Goffman, the very anticipation of contact can cause the “normals” and the stigmatized to try to avoid one another. This is because the two parties
|a.||have experienced negative reactions from everyone they have encountered in the other group.|
|b.||wish to avoid discomfort, rejection, and suspicions they encounter from people in the other group.|
|c.||wish to resist the social pressures pushing them to interact with one another.|
|d.||believe they cannot form a relationship that matches the “ideal” kind of relationship portrayed in the media.|
1. Eugenics presented itself is as
|a.||a movement encouraging racial segregation.|
|b.||a science seeking to improve society through the betterment of living conditions.|
|c.||an applied science with the purpose of identifying ways to improve the genetic composition of populations.|
|d.||a science seeking to improve society by ridding the world of ‘degenerate’ races.|
1. To _____________ racial categories is to treat them as if they are real and meaningful and to forget they are made up.
1. When asked what ethnicity she is, Ruth says “I don’t have an ethnicity, I’m just white.” This is an example of
1. __________ assimilation produces a newly blended cultural system.
1. Fà-afafine literally means
|b.||in the way of women.|
|c.||unusual to a fault.|
1. In 2000, the United States system of racial classification changed such that people
|a.||could no longer claim racial identity.|
|b.||can identify themselves as belonging to more than one of 63 racial categories.|
|c.||could refuse to answer the race question.|
|d.||could identify with only one racial category.|
1. Once a child is labeled male or female, everyone who comes in contact with the child begins to treat him or her as such and encourages gender-specific behavior. This dynamic relates to the process known as
|b.||commercialization of gender ideals.|
1. The belief that one sex—and by extension, one gender—is superior to another and that this superiority justifies inequalities between sexes is known as
1. Which statement best reflects the “socialization perspective” of gender differences?
|a.||Differences between men and women can be traced to their daily work experiences.|
|b.||There is a close correspondence between primary sex characteristics and athletic ability.|
|c.||An undetermined but significant portion of male-female differences are products of the ways in which males and females are treated.|
|d.||A person’s position in the social structure can channel his or her behavior in a stereotypical male or female direction.|
1. The statement “Norms governing body language are learned” emphasizes which one of the following factors?
1. It is significant that the U.S. definition of ________________ does not include a reference to original peoples?
|d.||black or African-American|
1. “‘Judges in courtrooms; priests, rabbis, and mullahs; leaders and members of unions and clubs’ are most likely males who make policies and decisions that affect the lives of women and girls.” This statement is describing dynamics associated with the
|a.||natural division of the sexes.|
|d.||subordination of women.|
1. Which one of the following categories has the greatest chance of going to prison in the United States?
|c.||Native American males|
1. Which one of the following statements describes how minorities respond to stigmatization?
|a.||Minorities respond in a variety of ways to being treated as members of a category.|
|b.||Minorities respond as passive victims.|
|c.||Minorities respond in predictable, aggressive ways.|
|d.||Minorities claim “discrimination” even when it doesn’t exist.|
1. Rachel’s friend who considers herself Asian does not do well on math tests. Rachel thinks she should be good at math because she is Asian. To support her stereotype Rachel sees her friend as
|a.||not really Asian.|
|b.||as an “exception to the rule.”|
|c.||as more White than Asian.|
|d.||as not trying.|
1. Norms governing male body language suggest all but which one of the following?
1. When studying stigmas, Goffman maintained that the primary focus should be on
|a.||the attribute that is defined as the stigma.|
|c.||what he calls “mixed contacts”.|
|d.||the three types of stigmas.|
1. Before the Christianization of Samoa, the transition from boyhood to manhood was accompanied by
|a.||separation from females for one year.|
|b.||a religious ceremony that lasted for 3 days.|
|c.||a long, painful process of body tattooing from the waist to below the knees.|
|d.||a time of isolation in the wilderness.|
1. Federal sentences issued for crack cocaine offenses are three to six times longer than those for offenses involving equal amounts of powder cocaine. Approximately 85 percent of defendants convicted of crack offenses in federal court are black, whereas 78 percent of defendants in powder cocaine cases are white; thus, the severe sentences are imposed “primarily upon black offenders”. This is an example of
|a.||the success of the war on drugs.|
1. The interconnections among socially constructed categories of sex, gender, race, class, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, age, and other statuses is known as
1. Brazil’s black consciousness movement
|a.||advocates the dismantling of racial categories.|
|b.||employ a 2-category system of racial classification.|
|c.||promotes multi-racial identities.|
|d.||seeks to overthrow the Brazilian government.|
1. Sexual orientation is __________ of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women or both sexes.
|c.||an enduring pattern|
1. An elementary school student is asked, “How would your life be different if you were a member of the opposite sex?” He replies, “I would have to shave my whole body.” His response implies that he thinks in terms of
|a.||a biological model of sex differences.|
1. The _________ assumes humanity can be neatly divided into two clear-cut categories: male and female.
|d.||American Sociological Association|
1. The tern “Hispanic,” created in 1970 by the U.S. government, groups together people from, or with ancestors from, 21 Central and South American countries that were once former colonies of Spain. Now people from these countries must identify as “Hispanic.” This speaks to dynamics underlying
1. One study found that the lightest-skin immigrants to the U.S. earn 16 to 23 cents more on the dollar than their darkest-skinned immigrant counterparts. In this case skin shade has been
1. In thinking about masculinity and femininity, sociologists recognize
|a.||there is one form of masculinity and femininity.|
|b.||there is one form of masculinity and many forms of femininity.|
|c.||there are many forms of masculinity and femininity.|
|d.||in nature there are just two gender categories.|
1. Research suggests that early childhood teachers are more accepting of girls’ cross-gender behaviors and explorations than they are of such behaviors from boys. Apparently, teachers believe that boys who behave like “sissies” are at greater risk of becoming homosexual and psychologically ill-adjusted than are girls who behave like “tomboys.” The practice speaks to which one of the following dynamics?
|a.||biologically based differences between boys and girls|
|b.||innate differences between boys and girls|
|c.||the dynamics of socialization|
|d.||gender neutral approaches to education|
1. _______ are subpopulations within a society that are systematically excluded from full participation in society and denied equal opportunities to power, prestige, and wealth.
|b.||The foreign born|
|d.||The native born|
1. Sociologist define __________ as social distinctions based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about appropriate behavior and appearances for males and for females.
|d.||primary sex characteristics|
1. Which one of the following statements about minority status is false?
|a.||People that belong to a minority group are treated as a category, not as individuals.|
|b.||Minorities do not enjoy the freedom or the privilege to move within the society in the same way that members of the dominant group do.|
|c.||Minority status is a sociological term that applies exclusively to racial and ethnic groups.|
|d.||A minority may be the numerical majority in a society.|
1. When the painter Paul Gauguin visited Tahiti in 1891, he emphasized that there is “something virile in the women and something feminine in the men.” on the basis of the observation Gauguin concluded that
|a.||there is a fixed line separating maleness from femaleness.|
|b.||Tahiti was a backward society.|
|c.||the United States (and Europe) had made women into artificial creations.|
|d.||homosexuality was acceptable in that society.|
1. In the U.S. sexual relationships between enslaved women and their master produced not only “mixed race” offspring but also sons and daughters. Yet the system of racial classification assigned the offspring of these unions to the race of the mother. This situation speaks to the importance of ____________ in determining race.
1. Which of the following is true about race in Brazil?
|a.||Most people think of themselves as one race.|
|b.||Everyone fits neatly into a single racial category.|
|c.||Most people think of themselves as multi-racial.|
|d.||For most of its history, Brazil discouraged sexual relationships between whites and non-whites.|