Annotated Bibliography On 2 Articles (ATTACHED)

includes 2 Annotated Bibliography. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

 

 

Cardiology – (2020) 1e3

Canadian Journal of 

Editorial

Feel Better, Work Better: The COVID-19 Perspective Michelle M. Graham, MD,a Lyall Higginson, MD,c Peter G. Brindley, MD,b and

Rakesh Jetly, MDd aDepartment of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

bDepartment of Critical Care, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada cDepartment of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

dCanadian Forces Health Services Group, Department of National Defence, Government of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta, and Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

The world appears to many to be a scary place at the moment. News outlets and social media are full of the latest horror stories of exponential increases in COVID-19 patients, dwindling medical supplies, heartbreaking decisions due to rationing of care, and infected health care workers. And, of course, there are tales of individuals who are not taking this pandemic seriously, who are defying physical distancing recommendations and even quarantine and putting others at risk as a result.

In the meantime, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and arrhythmias still happen in uninfected patients. Furthermore, COVID-19 illness is more serious in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease; similarly, dramatic cardiac manifesta- tions have been seen in people with normal hearts. Either way, cardiovascular professionals are now on the front line looking after these critically ill patients.

Thiscomes at a significant personaltoll. Some practitioners are making the decision to self-isolate when not at work in the hos- pital, to avoid risk to their families. Others, on the basis of age or underlyingmedical conditions,are already at high risk themselves. Even worse, there’s no end in sight, only the ongoing anxiety about “what, or who, is next.” Work-life balance has always been a challenge, but it has never been more important than now. We may feel confronted by the conflict between our patients and our profession versus caring for ourselves and our families. As an example, many of us are required to be front-line health pro- fessionals and simultaneously home school our children.

Strategies to Keep the Workforce Up and Running

As has often been said regarding this pandemic, it is a marathon, not a sprint, and it is affecting all aspects of society,

Received for publication April 8, 2020. Accepted April 13, 2020.

Corresponding author: Dr Michelle M. Graham, Division of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 8440 112th St NWdSuite 2C2 WMC, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2B7, Canada. Tel.: þ1- 780-407-1590; fax: þ1-780-407-1496.

E-mail: mmg2@ualberta.ca See page 3 for disclosure information.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.04.012 0828-282X/� 2020 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. A

not just the health system. Currently, many practitioners have transferred follow-up care and even consultations to a virtual realm, either by telephone or telehealth, with in-person visits reserved for those judged to require personal clinical assess- ment. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Rapid Response Team has already provided guidance on the use of procedures and clinic space during this time (Table 1).1-12

This is predicated, however, on cardiac sciences programs maintaining their workforce.

Most programs have schedules that have been set months in advance, often dependent on travel and vacation schedules, as well as the need for academic deliverables for some in- dividuals. Most of these schedules have been abandoned in favour of “crisis response” mode. With meetings and travel cancelled, the focus should be on both maintaining clinical expertise in all areas of cardiovascular medicine and reducing personal risk. Every effort should be made to avoid exposure for health professionals over the age of 60 years and those with certain underlying conditions, particularly in circumstances where risk may be higher (such as a COVID-19 patient requiring intubation). In a group practice situation, where each member maintains personal patients, now may be the time to “share” patients, such that follow-up can be done for these higher-risk individuals, keeping them safe while at the same time offloading the workload of other clinicians who are providing front-line care. We can learn from our colleagues across the globe, many of whom have specifically designated separate locations to care for noninfected patients with acute cardiac illnesses.

Given the potential physical, emotional, and mental stress of this pandemic, some consideration should be given to the feasibility of reducing the length of clinical rotations to allow all practitioners the opportunity to rest, recharge, and be with their loved ones. Key to this is skilled leadership and the close communication and coordination among group members, with flexibility for clinical assignments to cover those who may fall ill, even with the common cold.

CCS is working on a new initiative where our members can share practical tips and advice, ranging from safety to how groups are handling call schedules. Equally important, please

ll rights reserved.

 

 

Table 1. COVID-19 topics covered by the CCS Rapid Response Team.

Date Topic

March 15, 2020 CCS’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic12

March 15, 2020 COVID-19 and use of ACEi/ARB/ARNi medications for heart failure or hypertension11

March 16, 2020 COVID-19 and cardiac device patients: a message from the Canadian Heart Rhythm Society10

March 17, 2020 Guidance on ambulatory management and diagnostic testing during the COVID-19 crisis9

March 17, 2020 Joint letter to the Deputy Ministers of Health and Public Safety offering expert guidance on a coordinated strategy regarding the use of ECMO during the COVID-19 pandemic8

March 19, 2020 Guidance on hospital-based care and cardiac procedures during the COVID-19 crisis7

March 20, 2020 Updated. COVID-19 and concerns regarding use of cardiovascular medications, including ACEi/ ARB/ARNi, low-dose ASA and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)6

March 22, 2020 COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease: what the cardiac healthcare provider should know5

March 25, 2020 Guidance on community-based care of the cardiovascular patient during the COVID-19 pandemic4

March 30, 2020 Reducing in-hospital spread and the optimal use of resources for the care of hospitalized cardiovascular patients during the COVID-19 pandemic3

April 1, 2020 Is it COVID-19 or is it heart failure: management of ambulatory heart failure patients2

April 7, 2020 Management of referral, triage, waitlist and reassessment of cardiac patients during the COVID-19 pandemic1

ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin re- ceptor blocker; ARNi, angiotensin receptor – neprilysin inhibitor; ASA, ace- tylsalicylic acid; CCS, Canadian Cardiovascular Society; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

2 Canadian Journal of Cardiology Volume – 2020

share the strategies that are not working, and whydwe can all learn from each other, saving time and precious resources.

The Emotional and Mental Toll of COVID-19 The widespread measures taken to limit the spread of this

virus will have considerable emotional and mental health fallout for patients and individuals who have spent lengthy periods in isolation. We must also not underestimate the psychologic trauma that is being experienced by health pro- fessionals worldwide. The moral and ethical dilemma of rationing care, personal protective equipment, and even ven- tilators will likely have a toll.13

Lai et al. recently reported the mental health outcomes of 1257 healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients in China, using a series of validated instruments. Depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress were reported by the majority of participants. Multivariate logistic regression identified nurses, women, front-line workers, and those in the epicenter of the pandemic (Wuhan) to be at higher risk for symptoms.14

Acute psychologic distress is not the only risk for our profession. Burnout is defined as a constellation of mental fatigue, physical fatigue, frustration, and disengagement.15,16

Some are now referring to this as “moral injury,” a term borrowed from those observing the “guilt, shame, and anger” present in military and veteran communities.17 A 2019 survey conducted by the America College of Cardiology suggests that 35% of cardiovascular practitioners were experiencing

burnout and 44% acknowledged symptoms of stress.18 Social support helps to alleviate burnout; in this pandemic, some of these supports are harder to find, or they look and feel different. We are not having coffee with our friends or going to the gym. We are potentially isolating ourselves from our families for their own safety; we are hearing of colleagues who are writing their wills, providing advance care directives, and deciding who will take their children. We are intubating our colleagues. Some are dying from this.

Mitigation Strategies One thing that has become abundantly clear is that

teamwork is sexy again. There’s no room for minor drama and frustrations in the midst of this big picture. And that feeling of teamwork is incredibly reassuring and humbling. It’s a reminder of why we all chose to do this work in the first place.

We need to be kind to ourselves and kind to each other. We need to model the right behaviour for our fellows, resi- dents, and colleagues, including nurses, pharmacists, respira- tory therapists, environmental services, etc. That means “do as I say and as I do.” Everyone is being told they need to eat well, sleep well, and make time for exercise. This applies to us, too.

We need to take our emotional temperatures as well as assessing physical symptoms. The management of this pandemic can be thought of as a mission. Health care workers can take advantage of the extensive work done by the Cana- dian Armed Forces Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) program, which is designed to improve work performance and long-term mental health outcomes through a foundation in resilience. The app for it is free to download and contains a rapid assessment tool to assess a spectrum of healthy adaptive coping to distress and severe functional impairment (mood, attitude and performance, sleep, physical symptoms, social behaviour, alcohol, and gambling). Regular monitoring promotes self-awareness and the identification of areas requiring more attention and resources.19

It is important to note that there are many important self-care tools, and individuals need to identify and practice the ones that work for themselves. One person may find yoga and mindfulness calming, whereas others prefer a walk, a run, or lifting weights. Some will make more time to explore their spirituality. Choose the tools that work for you.

Everyone has their own (different) personal and profes- sional contexts; this will influence how we are feeling, and how we make decisions. Individuals react differently to some of the challenges we are facing. Some are taking this whole situation in stride, some are not. Remember, it’s okay to be okay, and it’s also okay to not be okay. But you are more likely to be okay in the long term if you take steps now. Don’t forget those basic building blocks of nutrition, sleep, and exercise. Our junior colleagues and trainees are vulnerable in that they are truly front-line, often with little experience. However, they are also our future and will lead the next time we face a challenge. Our senior colleagues, although more seasoned, were more likely to have symptoms of burnout before the pandemic. While we are looking after ourselves, we need to look out for each otherdif everyone reaches out to just a few others every few days, we will be stronger and healthier for it. On the other hand, the failure to reach out might come at an immense cost.

 

 

Graham et al. 3 COVID-19: Feel Better, Work Better

Finally, please remember what we learned as kids: Treat others the way you want to be treated. There is no place for comments like “being stressed is not a good reason to not come to work.” The CCS is a tight-knit community. The number 1 reason that members attend the Canadian Car- diovascular Congress is networking. Any time an affiliate group gets together, the respect and camaraderie are evident on the smiles on everyone’s faces. We are more than a pro- fessional organization; we are a team, a community and a family. This pandemic will end; and it has the potential to strengthen our personal and professional relationships.

Let’s play to our strengths.

Funding Sources The authors have no funding souces to declare.

Disclosures The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

References

1. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: Management of referral, triage, waitlist and reassessment of cardiac patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. April 7, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/ Images_2020/Refer_Triage_Wait_Mgmt_07Apr20.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

2. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: Is it COVID-19 or is it heart failure: management of ambulatory heart failure patients. April 1, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/COVID_or_HF_ RRT_doc_01Apr.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

3. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: Reducing in-hospital spread and the optimal use of resources for the care of hospitalized cardiovascular patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. March 30, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/NEW_CCS_RRT_Inhoptial_ infection_reduction_30Mar.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

4. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: Guidance on community-based care of the cardiovascular patient during the COVID-19 pandemic. March 25, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/ CCS%20Guidance%20for%20Community%20Care%2025Mar2020. pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

5. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease: what the cardiac healthcare provider should know. March 22, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/COVID_ and_Cardiovascular_Disease_22Mar2020.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

6. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: Updated. COVID-19 and con- cerns regarding use of cardiovascular medications, including ACEi/ARB/ ARNi, low-dose ASA and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). March 20, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/ CCS_CHFS_Update_COVID__CV_medications_Mar20.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

7. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: Guidance on hospital-based care and cardiac procedures during the COVID-19 crisis. March 19, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/Guidance_ on_hospital-based_care_and_cardiac_procedure_use_19Mar2020.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

8. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Tream: Joint letter to the Deputy Ministers of Health and Public Safety offering expert guidance on a co- ordinated strategy regarding the use of ECMO during the COVID-19 pandemic. March 17, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/ Images_2020/ECMO_Coord_Resp_Team_CCS_CSCS_CANCARE_ 17Mar2020.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

9. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: Guidance on ambulatory management and diagnostic testing during the COVID-19 crisis. March 17, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS_ Guidance_for_Ambulatory_and_Diagnostic_Testing.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

10. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: COVID-19 and cardiac device patients: a message from the Canadian Heart Rhythm Society. March 16, 2020. Available at: https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CHRS_ COVID-19_Update_EN.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

11. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: COVID-19 and use of ACEi/ ARB/ARNi medications for heart failure or hypertension. March 15, 2020. Available at: http://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS_ CHFS_statement_regarding_COVID_EN.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2020.

12. CCS COVID-19 Rapid Response Team: CCS’s response to the COVID- 19 pandemic. March 15, 2020. Available at: http://www.ccs.ca/en/ccs- mission-and-vision/covid-19-update. Accessed April 13, 2020.

13. Rosenbaum L. Facing COVID-19 in Italy: ethics, logistics and thera- peutics on the epidemic’s front line [e-pub ahead of print]. N Engl J Med https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2005492.

14. Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among healthcare workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e203976.

15. Boudreau RA, Grieco RL, Cahoon SL, Robertson RC, Wedel RJ. The pandemic from within: two surveys of physician burnout in Canada. Can J Community Ment Health 2006;25:71-88.

16. Brindley PG. Psychological burnout and the intensive care practitioner: a practical and candid review for those who care. J Intensive Care Soc 2017;18:270-5.

17. Litz BT, Stein N, Delaney E, Lebowitz L, Nash WP, Silva C, Maguen S. Moral injury and moral repair in war veterans: a preliminary model and intervention strategy. Clin Psychol Rev 2009;29:695-706.

18. Mehta LS, Lewis SJ, Duvernoy CS, et al; on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Women in Cardiology Leadership Council. Burnout and career satisfaction among U.S. cardiologists. J Am Coll Cardiol 2019;73:3345-8.

19. Canadian Armed Forces: Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) program. Available at: https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/ services/guide/dcsm/r2mr.html. Accessed April 13, 2020.

 

https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/Refer_Triage_Wait_Mgmt_07Apr20.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/Refer_Triage_Wait_Mgmt_07Apr20.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/COVID_or_HF_RRT_doc_01Apr.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/COVID_or_HF_RRT_doc_01Apr.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/NEW_CCS_RRT_Inhoptial_infection_reduction_30Mar.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/NEW_CCS_RRT_Inhoptial_infection_reduction_30Mar.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS%20Guidance%20for%20Community%20Care%2025Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS%20Guidance%20for%20Community%20Care%2025Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS%20Guidance%20for%20Community%20Care%2025Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/COVID_and_Cardiovascular_Disease_22Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/COVID_and_Cardiovascular_Disease_22Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS_CHFS_Update_COVID__CV_medications_Mar20.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS_CHFS_Update_COVID__CV_medications_Mar20.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/Guidance_on_hospital-based_care_and_cardiac_procedure_use_19Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/Guidance_on_hospital-based_care_and_cardiac_procedure_use_19Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/ECMO_Coord_Resp_Team_CCS_CSCS_CANCARE_17Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/ECMO_Coord_Resp_Team_CCS_CSCS_CANCARE_17Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/ECMO_Coord_Resp_Team_CCS_CSCS_CANCARE_17Mar2020.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS_Guidance_for_Ambulatory_and_Diagnostic_Testing.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS_Guidance_for_Ambulatory_and_Diagnostic_Testing.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CHRS_COVID-19_Update_EN.pdf
https://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CHRS_COVID-19_Update_EN.pdf
http://www.ccs.ca/images/Images_2020/CCS_CHFS_statement_regarding_COVID_EN.pdf
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  • Feel Better, Work Better: The COVID-19 Perspective
    • Strategies to Keep the Workforce Up and Running
    • The Emotional and Mental Toll of COVID-19
    • Mitigation Strategies
    • Funding Sources
    • Disclosures
    • References

 

Remote Working with Work-life Balance

Pradit Songsangyos 1*, Supakorn Iamamporn 2*

1*Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi Thailand

e-mail: pradit.s@rmutsb.ac.th 2Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi

Thailand e-mail: supakorn_9843@hotmail.com

Abstract— By late of the year 2019 and early of the year 2020, the new Coronavirus, called “COVID-19”, rapid spread all over the world. So people should isolate in their home, to have social distancing to prevent the spreading of the COVID-19. All businesses then sudden turn to an adopted virtual organization, entirely digitized, by remote working from home. The employees work at home using communication tools to connect with a remote computer site. A flexible work arrangement means adjustment working time at their home for a better work-life balance. In contrast, work-family conflict occurs when there are tension and strain between the roles undertaken in the separate domains of work and family. The advantages of remote working such as cut the cost of travel from home to office and return home, saving time. This remote working also saves resources of the organization, including electrical and water consumption. The disadvantages of remote working are as follows. Remote workers will depend on using ICTs. Due to the amount of Internet usage will be increased, not as usual, while their computer may be outdated. So the organization should support the employees to work from home, for example, extra payment for Internet usage or give a net sim to the employees for work from home. Importantly, work from home may face work-family conflict. The successful to adopted remote working is not only by employees but also employer as well. The director or boss should understand the factors which impact to finish the tasks, have a good plan, provide availability and flexibility of work, and aimed at the outcome. There are various applications to support work from home. If the organizations should pay for the apps, they have to concerned about the difference in price, features, and it’s easy to use.

Keywords- Remote work, virtual organization, work from home, work-life balance, work-family conflict

I. INTRODUCTION In the 21st Century an adoption of using the

communication and information technology (ICT),

exceptionally smartphones or mobile devices and Internet technology, providing virtual organization which can work automatically and remotely from anywhere at any time. By late of the year 2019 and early of the year 2020, the new Coronavirus, called “COVID-19”, rapid spread all over the world. So people should isolate in their home, to have social distancing to prevent the spreading of the COVID- 19. All businesses then sudden turn to an adopted virtual organization, entirely digitized, by remote working from home.

This paper focuses on investigating the use of ICT, especially mobile devices and Internet technology for work from home. Besides, the advantages and drawback of work from home. How to manage the work from home boundaries? Lead to reduce the work-family conflict (WFC) or appropriated work-life balance (WLB).

II. LITERATURE REVIEWS Messenger [1] and Dagnino [2] describes three

generations of telework as following. The first generation, which called “home office” during the 1970s and 1980s, was stationary by desktop computers and communicated via landline or fixed telephones in the workers’ homes. It was a substitute for work in the office so-called “telecommuting”.

The second generation, call the mobile office. Workers were enabled to work both in the office and home called “third spaces”. Telework at this stage was partly substituting for work in the office. The fast-growing of the Internet and World Wide Web access, also made it accessible on smaller and more powerful devices such as smartphones and tablets take telework to its third generation, called “virtual office”. Modern ICTs then enable workers to work from anywhere at any time due to mobile devices and wireless network access.

The employees work at home using communication tools, such as smartphone, videoconference, email or Line, to connect with a remote computer site. A flexible work arrangement means adjustment working time and locations for better work-life balance [3]. Davis and Francis [4] has defined work-life balance (WLB) as “an overall level of contentment resulting from an assessment of one’s degree

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of success at meeting work and family role demands”. Conversely, work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when there are tension and strain between the roles undertaken in the separate domains of work and family. Contents of Remote Working

To achieve the full advantages of remote working, it should contain people, processes, and technology, as shown in figure1.

Figure 1 Content of remote working adopted from [5].

The advantages of remote working Cut the cost of travel from home to office and return

home, saving time and reduce pollution. The remote workers then have extra time or can manage a specific time for their tasks. According to CIPD’s Survey 2012 stated that 56% of employers found that absence dropped. Due to remote workers can take care of themselves, then they likely to have fewer sick days than the regular workers. The drawback of remote working

Some people need to contact their managers out of the schedule, and this also affects the tasks required. Remote workers will depend on 100 per cent on technology, so make sure that everyone can be easily reachable by using ICTs such as email, smartphone, etc. Some remote workers will be distracted when working from home by children around, TV shows. Also, they have unlimited access to websites and social media, which affect tasks and productivity. Importantly, in remote working, no team working, no knowledge sharing. So no one can improve his or her skills by learning from professionals or others [5].

In early 2020, the coronavirus pandemic has led to businesses all over the world, including Thailand, shifting to remote working to increase social distances. There are recommendations for work from home with work-life balancing as follows.

1. Setting the workspace zone Setting a workspace zone that is separate from other

parts of the house will help to concentrate on the job. If the

house does not have a dedicated workspace, try to find an area or corner of the room and use objects to separate them into a separate workspace. Also, tell the family members not to disturb in this workspace zone.

2. Cut distractions environment Even though there are various noises, like the sound of

TV that parents are watching. Wearing light music headphone will help to concentrate on the work. Besides, tell the family members not come into the work zone or call to talk during working hours. So there will not be a work-family conflict.

3. Strictly with the working plan Work from home requires a lot of discipline. By in

front of the computer at home at the same time every day. Clear work plan, including relaxation breaks. It is an excellent way to maintain a schedule like being work at the office.

4. Prepare to communicate with the team Working at home may cause loneliness and stress.

Using videoconference services like Zoom or group chat line with colleagues to support and exchange ideas on work. Furthermore, better communication while remote can help maintain your relationship with your colleagues, managers, and direct reports.

5. Leave when you are off the clock The disadvantage of working from home is that the workspace and personal space are not separate. Which causes people to get stress from work. So after working hours away from the computer, including all the things that remind of work. Then go to do other activities, to reduce stress and restore energy, prepare to work in the next day [6][7]. Application for work from home

The situation of the crisis of COVID-19 that is severe in many countries, making the concept of working from home return to popular again. As it is one of the guidelines for “Social Distancing” to reduce the infection of COVID- 19. According to buffer.com, stated that the freedom to work from anywhere, about 84% of these people preferred work from home. There are various applications to support work from home. Some useful applications are recommending as follows.

Line application is the number one popular app that everyone has loaded onto the smartphone or PC. Line is useful for discussing, tracking tasks, or notes, which are usually in the form of “group lines”.

Zoom provides a full range of videoconference services. It is a tool for communication for various businesses. Especially the service called Zoom Meetings and Chat, which has both video and voice calling services. Zoom helps make video conferencing and voice calls more convenient and easier. In the free service model, it supports the work of a small team.

Once finished the work, the Dropbox application is recommending for sending information to the leader or staff. This application is a cloud-based data management service that is very convenient. It has a file-sharing feature for others to view or download for free up to 2TB of file storage.

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Google Drive is beneficial for people who have to work remotely. Due to various features work better than similar drives in Dropbox and works well even on Mac computers. Its limitation is users need to be online while using Google Drive and Google docs. Google Drive also allows users and colleagues to work on the same document or spreadsheet calculation program in real-time, let all members see the changes able to comment on a document.

Office 365 is another essential application that needs to be loaded. It can work across platforms by supporting both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh operating system. The Office 365 suite includes Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, OneNote, Access, and Publisher, say as an ordinary program. It is a full-featured Office service with many services and capabilities. Office 365 Home is available for up to 6 users [8][9].

III. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The employees work at home using communication

tools to connect with a remote computer site. A flexible work arrangement means adjustment working time at their home for a better work-life balance. In contrast, work- family conflict occurs when there are tension and strain between the roles undertaken in the separate domains of work and family. Remote working should contain people, processes, and technology. The advantages of remote working such as cut the cost of travel from home to office and return home, saving time. This remote working also conserves resources of the organization, including electrical and water consumption. The disadvantages of remote working are as follows. Remote workers will depend on using ICTs. Due to the amount of Internet usage will be increased, not as usual. While their computer may be outdated. So the organization should support the employees to work from home, for example, extra payment for Internet usage or give a net sim to the employees for work from home, allow them to borrow some computer and equipment. Importantly, work from home may face work-family conflict. There are five tips to manage the unavoidable stress of this situation and balance competing priorities as follows. 1) Setting the workspace zone 2) Cut distractions environment 3) Strictly with the working plan 4) Prepare to communicate with the team 5) Leave when you are off the clock. The successful to adopted remote working is not only by employees but also employer as well. The director or boss should understand the factors which impact to finish the tasks, have a well plan, provide availability and flexibility of work, and aimed at the outcome. Some employees may prefer to work strictly during office hours. In contradict, the others may manage their time as convenience. Then the milestones is used to tracking that the tasks will finished on schedule time.

In early of the year 2020, the situation of the pandemic of COVID-19 attempts to increase social distancing. There are various applications to support work from home. Some useful applications are recommending as follows. 1) The application for communication with colleagues via cloud services such as Line and email 2) The application for

communication with colleagues via videoconference such as Zoom, Microsoft Team, and Google Team 3) The application for storage via cloud service including Dropbox, One Drive, and Google Drive 4) The application for office work such as Microsoft Office 365 and Google Doc. Usually, Google supports educational institutions with Google for education or G Suite with no charge. So the educational institutions have all applications available to use, including Google Doc, Gmail, Google Drive, Google Teams, etc. Some organizations preferred to use Microsoft Suite, which they are familiar with the applications such as Microsoft Office 365, One Drive, Microsoft Teams, etc. Recently, some company offer their software with no charge or at a special rate to support work from home policy during the pandemic of COVID- 19. If the organizations should pay for the applications, they have to concerned about the difference in price, features, and it’s easy to use. This pandemic makes the opportunity for nearly all businesses to a sudden change to work online as a virtual organization or digital organization. But after this pandemic resolved, the organizations may have to pay for the cost to adopted remote working. Then remote working will be supplemental or substitutional for work in the office.

For further study, the exploration of the virtual university should be concerned. A comparison of various applications to point out the cost and profits of each product should be presented.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my junior for her model to survival with COVID-19 pandemic, to inspire my idea to write this article which is the hot issue in Thailand and all over the world recently. Finally, yet importantly, I would like to thanks to my beloved parents for their blessings and always support me.

REFERENCES [1] Messenger, Jon C. 2019. Introduction: Telework in the 21st

century – an evolutionary perspective. International Labour Organization.

[2] Dagnino, Emanuele. 2016. What does telework mean in the 21st century? ADAPT International, 1-3.

[3] Mohite, Maheshkumar Devendra, and Kulkarni, R. V. 2019. “Job satisfaction Factors of Employee in Virtual Workplace: Review” International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development.

[4] Davis, Hilary, and Francis, Valerie, 2016. ICT in construction: Can it reduce work-family conflict by decreasing workloads? In Proceedings of the 28th Australian Conference on Computer- Human Interaction, pp 447–451.

[5] Mohamed, Nour Eldin, et al. 2018. The Impacts of Remote working on Workers Performance. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Arab Conference on Information Technology, Lebanon, pp. 1-5.

[6] Siam commercial bank. 2020. 5 rules to maintain work efficiency when work from home. [Online]. Available from https://www.scb.co.th/th/personal-banking/stories/salary-man/work -from-home.html.

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[7] Whitehead, Kourtney. 2020. 5 Tips To Balance Remote Working While Your Family Is Also At Home. Forbe.

[8] Santhawat Premsang. 2020. 7 home work apps, Work From Home, the Covid-19 era, preloaded for work. Studio7. [Online]. Available from https://www.studio7thailand.com/trends/7app-work-from- home/

[9] Workpoint News. 2020. Recommend 10 apps to help “Work from Home” in the Covid-19 era. Both meetings and document management. [Online]. Available from https://workpointnews. com/2020/03/17/app-work-from-home/

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