Article Review Paper

I have attached the article that needs to be used at the bottom of this assignment.

Step One (required): Please watch this youtube video ( ) that outlines the overall project for you. I recorded this for a *different* on-line class, so the info. will vary ‘a bit’. However, for the most part, the info. applies to this class as well.

Step Two (required): Please review this description of the assignment (Assignment adapted from Marc W. Patry at Saint Mary’s University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada). You should prepare concise (maximum 6 double-spaced typed pages, standard margins and 12-point font size) papers which include four enumerated sections: 1) summary and analysis (e.g., strengths & weaknesses) of a primary-source empirical article related to personality psychology that I assign, 2) tie-in between the article I assign and a concept from the assigned reading that we discuss in class, 3) relationship between the article I assign and a recent news story that you find on your own (attach a newspaper clipping to your paper), and 4) some connection of this topical area to your own life and personal interests.

These elements must be enumerated in your papers. Basically, these papers require you to digest a study related to personality psychology and to connect it to the assigned reading, to current events, and to something about yourself. Feel free to be creative about how you meet these objectives. I expect these papers to be highly varied, colorful, thoughtful and well written. Make sure to have fun with these papers! Your grades for these papers will be on a 30-point basis: up to six points for each of the four elements, and up to six points for writing (e.g., grammar, flow). These papers are to be no longer than six double-spaced typed pages of text (12-point font, standard margins). Be aware that you will be penalized if you exceed the six-page text limit (or effectively exceed it by using less than double spacing, reducing margin size or text size, etc.).

Step Three (optional): Please watch this Youtube video to learn more about reading empirical journal articles ( Journal articles are not the same as popular press articles (e.g., magazine articles). If you have limited prior experience with reading and reviewing journal articles, you may find it helpful to take a look at the Youtube video that is linked above. That video outlines the major parts of the empirical journal articles and how to effectively direct your attention as you read these types of articles. The following also is another Youtube video that you might want to check out:

Step Four (optional): Please take a look at some examples; I’ve posted two on the BB page for this class. Please feel free to take a look at these as you begin to prepare your own papers. A word to the  wise: DO NOT use these papers as word-for-word templates. Instead, use them as examples for formatting your paper.

Step Five (required): This is the article about which you will write your paper. Read the whole thing so that your review can reflect depth (and be eligible for full credit). Panagopoulos, C., & Lehrfeld J.M. (2015) Big Five Personality Traits and Occupy Wall Street. Psychology,06,1597-1563. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.615193



C. Panagopoulos, J. L. Lehrfeld

C. Panagopoulos, J. L. Lehrfeld

 Psychology, 2015, 6, 1957-1963

Published Online December 2015 in SciRes




Section I: Summery and Analysis

In accordance with this study of “Initial Data Characterizing the Progression from

Obsession and Compulsions to Full-Blown Obsessive Compulsive Disorder,” overseen by

Meredith E. According to Coles, Ashley S. Hart, and Casey A. Schofield (2012), preceding

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) clinical diagnosis, a person typically experiences years

of obsessive and compulsive tendencies referred to as the “OC symptom phase.” (p. #). During

the OC symptom phase which commonly occurs around the age of twelve, the prevalence and

manifestation of prodromes known as “risk markers” (p. #) begin to emerge. The goal of this

study was to provide data that could aid in interventions during the symptomatic stage, to reduce

the severity of distress before it reaches clinical inception.

Participants included 18 Caucasian adults classified under the Diagnostic and Statistical

Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) as exhibiting an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

(Coles, 2012). The subjects were asked to review their past course of events… and report their

OC symptoms. The participants scores were in the standard deviation range of 19.70 to 22.26 on

the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (OCI) self-report (Coles, 2012). The severity of their

symptoms were comparative with other people diagnosed with OCD. Among the OC symptoms

reported by the sample group were the following: obsessing (50%), perfectionism and

generalized anxiety (46.7%), checking and neutralizing (33.3%), washing, ordering, and

hoarding (22.2%), (Coles, 2012). Other possible risk markers reported included anxiety,

depression, and cognitive dissonance in the form of an increased need of certainty and extra

attention to thoughts.

Semi-structured interviews were administered by higher-level graduate students

alongside Meredith E. Coles (Coles, 2012). The team assessed the 51 symptoms or “risk

Comment [DLC1]: Please refer to  the outline,   instructions and grading rubric for this assignment  that I provided in the syllabus.     Did this student authour utilize APA‐  formatted citations and references? Yes. You’ll  notice that I went ahead and corrected this section  that the student wrote so that it would more closely  adhere to APA‐formatting. What she started with  was ‘good’, our combined goal, though, is to help  you improve your writing. (As announced in class,  students’ use of APA‐formatting need not be  perfect. It must be present, though. You can’t write  a ‘good’ summary and critique paper (about an  empirical journal article) that doesn’t contain  citations and references.     Did s/he summarize the article (i.e., state the  research’s purpose, question, method, and major  findings)? Yes.    Did s/he then summarize a strength or weakness of  the article? Yes.    (Please keep in mind that your textbook  contains some fairly‐good examples of APA‐  formatted citations and references. Another great  resource is the section of the Purdue OWL website  that describes APA formatting. I also am on hand  and happy to help if you have questions.)

Comment [DLC2]: Remember, direct quotes  should be cited appropriately.

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markers” associated with onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and rated the level ranging from

“‘mild’ (1) to ‘moderate’ (2) to ‘severe’ (3)” (Coles, 2012). A list was compiled of confounding

variables and evaluated as possible transition markers. The participants were asked to detail their

experience of how their symptoms began, whether or not it was a ‘sudden’ or ‘gradual’ process,

and when it began to interfere with their daily lives and manifest into anxiety. When asked what

they believed was most detrimental in the progression of their OCD they named stress, life

changes, and the drive to make everything perfect.

The results were as theorized by the researchers. All of the sample participants reported

exhibiting OC symptoms for a year prior and 88.9 percent reported 7 years on average before

their symptoms began to cause distress. Fifty percent reported exhibiting symptoms for 5 or

more years, and 33.3 percent said they had exhibited symptoms for ten years or longer.

While the strengths of this study are detailed above the weaknesses are as follows: though

the results of this study were comparative with similar prior studies, this study’s sample group

was comprised of an extremely small portion of OCD suffers. There was no randomization or

generality. Although the sample group consisted of an equivalent number of men and women,

they were all of the same ethnicity. There is no information given regarding their age, or

socioeconomic status which would have been beneficial in reviewing the data. Also, the method

of research was based solely on recollection and self-reports. A study based solely on self-reports

is not enough to substantiate a theory, because people’s responses can be falsified.

Section II: Concept from Assigned Reading

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a personality disorder characterized by intrusive or

invasive thoughts that cause anxiety, which is relieved by performing certain actions that a

person feels compelled to do (Larsen, 2010). As stated above in comparison with the findings of

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Comment [DLC3]: Please refer to  the outline  and instructions for this assignment that I provided  in the syllabus. Does this section include what  should be included here?

Comment [DLC4]: Notice how the student cited  some concept(s) that we read and discussed in class.  Then, notice how s/he related that to the article  that is summarized and critiqued in the first section  of this current paper.





the study performed by Coles, Hart, and Schofield, obsessive compulsive behavioral traits can

oftentimes be traced back to childhood. A person can experience obsessions and compulsions

without being classified as having the disorder, it is only when the person becomes fixated that it

becomes abnormal and alters their ability to perform other life functions properly. For instance,

most people who come into contact with something that is ‘contaminated’ wash their hands

afterwards. However, for a person with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, washing their hands

once may not be enough. They will wash, and re-wash their hands many times before they ‘feel’

like their hands are sufficiently clean, even if it were to cause them to miss an important

appointment or arrive late to work. People with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder often

irrationally feel that if they do not perform certain tasks, they or someone they know will suffer

negative repercussions (Larsen, 2010). This self-aware illogical reasoning is the center of their

executive dysfunction.

Section III: Recent News Story

In a recent news story published by USA Today, Anita Manning reports about an

inspiring young women by the name of Elyse Moni who was diagnosed with an Obsessive

Compulsive Disorder at the age of eight years old. Elyse is obsessed with perfection, which

started to manifest when she began staying up to odd hours of the night obsessing over perfecting

her homework. Elyse’s father is also a sufferer of the disorder; so he detected the symptoms early

on and took her in for a psychological evaluation. Her symptoms subsided after beginning

cognitive behavioral therapy, but still reoccur at times during significant life changes. For

instance, when she began high school she became obsessed with her school work to the point

that she did not feel she had enough time to do anything else, including eat, and had to be

hospitalized. She hid her disorder from her friends until her sophomore year when she decided to

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Comment [DLC5]: Please refer to  the outline  and instructions for this assignment that I provided  in the syllabus. Does this section include what  should be included here?

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publicize it and become an advocate for OCD awareness. Elyse’s doctor, Swedo, says that early

diagnosis is the key to helping obsessive compulsive children develop better coping strategies

that will carry on into adulthood (Manning 2004). Elyse’s story is relative to the research of

Coles, Hart, and Schofield in their goal of researching the ‘risk markers’ that could help detect

and intervene against OCD early on.

Section IV: Personal Connection

I am familiar with the problems associated with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder because

I know someone who suffers from the disorder. Though she has learned how to manage her

obsessions and compulsions over time, it was problematic and extremely troubling when the

symptoms first emerged in preadolescence. She began to experience excessive fears of

contamination, which contributed to an obsession with washing her hands. When asked once at

the peak of her disorder, how many times a day she washed her hands she replied, “two

hundred.” It was frustrating for her to attempt to explain it to people with no general knowledge

of the disorder, because they simply told her to stop washing her hands so often. Her parents

were unaware of what to do at first, because they had never heard of an Obsessive Compulsive

Disorder. However, they took her to a psychologist who clinically diagnosed her with OCD. She

went to therapy for a few years before finally reclaiming her thoughts and actions.


Comment [DLC6]: Notice how, as per  instructions, the student relates the popular press  article to the empirical journal article.

Comment [DLC7]: Please refer to  the outline  and instructions for this assignment that I provided  in the syllabus. Does this section include what  should be included here?

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Coles, M., Hart, A., & Schofield, C. (2012). Initial Data Characterizing the Progression from

Obsessions and Compulsions to Full-Blown Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Cognitive

Therapy & Research, 36(6), 685-693.

Larsen, R. J., & Buss, D. M. (2010). Personality Disorders. Personality Psychology: Domains of

Knowledge About Human Nature. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Manning, A. (2004). Early Intervention Helps. USA TODAY. Retrieved from


Comment [DLC8]: Recall the general rule that if  the paper contains citations, it also should contain a  reference list.

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