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CHAPTER TWENTY-FIVE PREPARING FOR EMERGENCIES AND TERRORISM

MAJOR TOPICS

▶ Rationale for Emergency Preparation ▶ Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act ▶ Organization and Coordination ▶ OSHA Standards ▶ First Aid in Emergencies ▶ How to Plan for Emergencies ▶ Planning for Workers with Disabilities ▶ Evacuation Planning ▶ Customizing Plans to Meet Local Needs ▶ Emergency Response ▶ Computers and Emergency Response ▶ Dealing with the Psychological Trauma of Emergencies ▶ Recovering from Disasters ▶ Terrorism in the Workplace ▶ Resuming Business after a Disaster

Despite the best efforts of all involved, emergencies do sometimes occur. The potential for human-caused

emergencies has increased significantly with the rise of worldwide terrorism. It is very important to

respond to such emergencies in a way that minimizes harm to people and damage to property. To do so

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requires plans that can be implemented without delay. This chapter provides prospective and practicing

safety and health professionals with the information they need to prepare for emergencies in the

workplace. Everything in this chapter pertains to all kinds of emergencies, including natural disasters and

terrorism. A special section relating specifically to terrorism is included at the end of the chapter.

RATIONALE FOR EMERGENCY PREPARATION

An emergency is a potentially life-threatening situation, usually occurring suddenly and unexpectedly.

Emergencies may be the result of natural or human causes. Have you ever witnessed the timely,

organized, and precise response of a professional emergency medical crew at an automobile accident?

While passers-by and spectators may wring their hands and wonder what to do, the emergency response

professionals quickly organize, stabilize, and administer first aid. Their ability to respond in this manner

is the result of preparation. As shown in Figure 25–1, preparation involves a combination of planning,

practicing, evaluating, and adjusting to specific circumstances.

When an emergency occurs, immediate reaction is essential. Speed in responding can mean the difference

between life and death or between minimal damage and major damage. Ideally, all those involved should

be able to respond properly with a minimum of

 

 

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hesitation. This can happen only if all exigencies have been planned for and planned procedures have

been practiced, evaluated, and improved.

FIGURE 25–1 Elements of emergency preparation.

A quick and proper response—which results because of proper preparation—can prevent panic, decrease

the likelihood of injury and damage, and bring the situation under control in a timely manner. Because no

workplace is immune to emergencies, preparing for them is critical. An important component of

preparation is planning.

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EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW ACT

Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) is also known as the

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). This law is designed to make

information about hazardous chemicals available to a community where they are being used so that

residents can protect themselves in the case of an emergency. It applies to all companies that use, make,

transport, or store chemicals.

Safety and health professionals involved in developing emergency response plans for their companies

should be familiar with the act’s requirements for emergency planning. As shown in Figure 25–2, the

EPCRA includes the four major components discussed in the following paragraphs.

 

 

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FIGURE 25–2 Parts of an emergency response plan.

 

 

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Emergency Planning

The emergency planning component requires that communities form local emergency planning

committees (LEPCs) and that states form state emergency response commissions (SERCs). LEPCs are

required to develop emergency response plans for the local communities, host public forums, select a

planning coordinator for the community, and work with the coordinator in developing local plans. SERCs

are required to oversee LEPCs and review their emergency response plans. Plans for individual

companies in a given community should be part of that community’s larger plan. Local emergency

response professionals should use their community’s plan as the basis for simulating emergencies and

practicing their responses.

Emergency Notification

The emergency notification component requires that chemical spills or releases of toxic substances that

exceed established allowable limits be reported to appropriate LEPCs and SERCs. Immediate notification

may be verbal as long as a written notification is filed promptly. Such reports must contain at least the

following information: (1) the names of the substances released, (2) where the release occurred, (3) when

the release occurred, (4) the estimated amount of the release, (5) known hazards to people and property,

(6) recommended precautions, and (7) the name of a contact person in the company.

Information Requirements

Information requirements mean that local companies must keep their LEPCs and SERCs and, through

them, the public informed about the hazardous substances that the companies store, handle, transport, or

use. This includes keeping comprehensive records of such substances on file, up-to-date, and readily

available; providing copies of safety data sheets for all hazardous substances; giving general storage

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locations for all hazardous substances; providing estimates of the amount of each hazardous substance on

hand on a given day; and estimating the average annual amount of hazardous substances kept on hand.

Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

The toxic chemical release reporting component requires that local companies report the total amount of

toxic substances released into the environment as either emissions or hazardous waste. Reports go to the

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the state-level environmental agency.

ORGANIZATION AND COORDINATION

Responses to emergencies are typically from several people or groups of people, including medical,

firefighting, security, and safety personnel as well as specialists from a variety of different fields. People in

each of these areas have different but interrelated and often interdependent roles to play in responding to

the emergency. Because of their disparate backgrounds and roles, both organization and coordination are

critical.

A company’s emergency response plan should clearly identify the different personnel and groups that

respond to various types of emergencies and, in each case, who is in charge. One person should be clearly

identified and accepted by all emergency responders as the emergency coordinator. This person should

be knowledgeable, at least in a general sense, of the responsibilities of each individual emergency

responder and how each relates to those of all other responders. This knowledge must include the order

of response for each type of emergency set forth in the plan.

A company’s safety and health professional is the obvious person to organize and coordinate emergency

responses. However, regardless of who is designated, it is important that (1) one person is in charge, (2)

everyone involved knows who is in charge, and (3) everyone who has a role in responding to an

emergency is given ample opportunities to practice in simulated conditions that come as close as possible

to real conditions.

 

 

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OSHA STANDARDS

All Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards are written for the purpose of

promoting a safe, healthy, accident-free, hence emergency-free workplace. Therefore, OSHA standards

play a role in emergency prevention and should be considered when developing emergency plans. For

example, exits are important considerations when planning for emergencies. Getting medical personnel

in and employees and injured workers out quickly is critical when responding to emergencies. The

following sections of OSHA’s standards deal with emergency preparedness:

Emergency Action Plan 29 CFR 1910.38

Exit arrangements 29 CFR 1910.37(e)

Exit capacity 29 CFR 1910.37(c), (d)

Exit components 29 CFR 1910.37(a)

Exit workings 29 CFR 1910.37(q)

Exit width 29 CFR 1910.37(c)

Exterior exit access 29 CFR 1910.37(g)

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Occupational Health and Environmental Controls

29 CFR 1926.65, Appendix C

Hazardous Materials 29 CFR 1910.120, Appendix C

A first step for companies developing emergency plans is to review these OSHA standards. This can help

safety and health personnel identify and correct conditions that may exacerbate emergency situations

before they occur.

FIRST AID IN EMERGENCIES

Workplace emergencies often require a medical response. The immediate response is usually first aid.

First aid consists of lifesaving measures taken to assist an injured person until medical help arrives.

Because there is no way to predict when first aid may be needed, providing first-aid training to employees

should be part of preparing for emergencies. In fact, in certain cases, OSHA requires that companies have

at least one employee on-site who has been trained in first aid (CFR 1910.151). Figure 25–3 contains a list

of the topics that may be covered in a first-aid class for industrial workers.

First-Aid Training Program

 

 

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FIGURE 25–3 Sample course outline for first-aid class.

First-aid programs are usually available in most communities. The continuing education departments of

community colleges and universities typically offer first-aid training.

 

 

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Classes can often be provided on-site and customized to meet the specific needs of individual companies.

The American Red Cross provides training programs in first aid specifically geared toward the workplace.

For more information about these programs, safety and health professionals may contact the national

office of the American Red Cross at 202-639-3200 (redcross.org).

The National Safety Council (NSC) also provides first-aid training materials. The First Aid and Emergency

Care Teaching Package contains a slide presentation, overhead transparencies, a test bank, and an

instructor’s guide. The council also produces a book titled First Aid Essentials. For more information

about these materials, safety and health professionals may contact the NSC at 800-832-0034 (nsc.org).

Beyond Training

Training employees in first-aid techniques is an important part of preparing for emergencies. However,

training is only part of the preparation. In addition, it is important to do the following:

1. Have well-stocked first-aid kits available. First-aid kits should be placed throughout the workplace in

clearly visible, easily accessible locations. They should be properly and fully stocked and periodically

checked to ensure that they stay fully stocked. Figure 25–4 lists the minimum recommended contents

for a workplace first-aid kit.

2. Have appropriate personal protective devices available. With the concerns about AIDS and hepatitis,

administering first aid has become more complicated than in the past. The main concerns are with

bleeding and other body fluids. Consequently, a properly stocked first-aid kit should contain rubber

surgical gloves and facemasks or mouthpieces for CPR.

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FIGURE 25–4 Minimum recommended contents of workplace first-aid kits.

3. Post emergency telephone numbers. The advent of 911 service has simplified the process of calling for

medical care, police, or firefighting assistance. If 911 services are

 

 

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not available, emergency numbers for ambulance, hospital, police, fire department, LEPC, and

appropriate internal personnel should be posted at clearly visible locations near all telephones in the

workplace.

4. Keep all employees informed. Some companies require all employees to undergo first-aid training;

others choose to train one or more employees in each department. Regardless of the approach used, it

is important that all employees be informed and kept up-to-date concerning basic first-aid

information. Figures 25–5 and 25–6 are first-aid fact sheets of the type used to keep employees

informed.

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FIGURE 25–5 First-aid fact sheet.

 

 

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FIGURE 25–6 First-aid fact sheet.

HOW TO PLAN FOR EMERGENCIES

Developing an emergency action plan (EAP) is a major step in preparing for emergencies. A preliminary

step is to conduct a thorough analysis to determine the various types of emergencies that may occur. For

example, depending on geography and the types of products and processes involved, a company may

anticipate such emergencies as the following: fires, chemical spills, explosions, toxic emissions, train

derailments, hurricanes, tornadoes, lightning, floods, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions.

 

 

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Safety Fact: Emergency Response Regulations

There are numerous government regulations requiring the development of emergency response plans.

Following are the most important of these:

■ Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures (SPCC) and

Facility Response Plans—40 CFR Part 112(d), 112.20–21.

■ EPA’s Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Contingency Plan—40 CFR Part 264, Subpart D;

Part 265, Subpart D and 279.52.

■ EPA’s Risk Management Plan (RMP)—40 CFR Part 68.

■ EPA’s Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA, also known as SARA Title III).

■ Comprehensive Emergency Response Compensation and Liabilities Act (CERCLA).

■ Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s OSHA Emergency Action Plan—29 CFR 1910.38.

■ OSHA’s Process Safety Standard (PSS)—29 CFR 1910.119.

■ OSHA’s Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) Regulation—29 CFR

1910.120.

■ Department of Transportation’s (DOT) Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) Pipeline

Response Plans—49 CFR Part 194.

■ U.S. Coast Guard’s (USCG) Facility Response Plans—33 CFR Part 154, Subpart F.

■ Minerals Management Services’ (MMS) Facility Response Plans—30 CFR Part 254.

A company’s EAP should be a collection of small plans for each anticipated or potential emergency. These

plans should have the following components:

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1. Procedures. Specific, step-by-step emergency response procedures should be developed for each

potential emergency.

2. Coordination. All cooperating agencies and organizations and emergency responders should be listed

along with their telephone number and primary contact person.

Discussion Case: What Is Your Opinion?

“Forget it! We are not going to train our employees in first aid. Emergencies notwithstanding, I don’t

want a bunch of amateur doctors running around the company doing more harm than good.” Mary

Vo Dinh, safety director for Gulf Coast Manufacturing, was getting nowhere trying to convince her

boss that the company should have employees trained in first aid in the event of an emergency. “But

John, we have had three hurricanes in just two years. Tornadoes are not uncommon here on the

coast.” “I will repeat myself just one more time,” said her boss. “No first-aid training.” Who is right in

this case? What is your opinion?

3. Assignments and responsibilities. Every person who will be involved in responding to a given

emergency should know his or her assignment. Each person’s responsibilities should be clearly

spelled out and understood. One person may be responsible for conducting an evacuation of the

affected area, another for the immediate shutdown of all equipment, and another for telephoning for

medical, fire, or other types of emergency assistance. When developing this part of the EAP, it is

important to assign a backup person

 

 

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for each area of responsibility. Doing so ensures that the plan will not break down if a person

assigned a certain responsibility is one of the victims.

4. Accident prevention strategies. The day-to-day strategies to be used for preventing a particular type of

emergency should be summarized in this section of the EAP. In this way, the strategies can be

reviewed, thereby promoting prevention.

5. Schedules. This section should contain the dates and times of regularly scheduled practice drills. It is

best to vary the times and dates so that practice drills don’t become predictable and boring. Figure

25–7 is a checklist that can be used for developing an EAP.

PLANNING FOR WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES

When developing EAPs it is important to consider the special needs of workers with disabilities. Do not

develop a separate EAP specifically for workers with disabilities—they should be included as a normal

part of the organization’s plan. An excellent set of guidelines is available to assist organizations in

considering the needs of workers with disabilities when developing EAPs.

Titled Preparing the Workplace for Everyone, these guidelines were developed for the use of federal

agencies but are available to private organizations and other public organizations as well. To obtain a

copy of the guidelines, contact the Office of Disability Employment Policy at the following address:

United States Department of Labor

Office of Disability Employment Policy

200 Constitution Ave. NW, Room S-1303

Washington, DC 20210

202-693-7880

dol.gov/odep

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The guidelines are presented under numerous subheadings with questions listed relating to each

subheading. What follows in the remainder of this section are categories of questions similar to and based

on those presented in the actual guidelines. Safety and health professionals are encouraged to obtain a

complete copy of the guidelines to ensure that their EAPs account for workers with disabilities

appropriately.

Involving Key Personnel

Under this heading, the guidelines pose questions similar to the following:

■ Are key personnel familiar with the EAP?

■ Are personnel with disabilities involved in all aspects of the development of the EAP?

■ Do senior executives support the development and updating of the EAP?

■ Has the EAP been reviewed by first responders and facility personnel?

■ Does any part of the plan conflict with procedures established by other applicable agencies?

Implementing Shelter-in-Place (SIP) Plans

Shelter-in-place (SIP) means that rather than evacuate in a disaster or emergency, immediate shelter is

sought. SIP comes into play when attempting to evacuate might increase the risk of harm or injury. There

should be an SIP provision built into the larger EAP containing provisions that speak on the following

concerns:

■ Are there provisions for shutting down the building’s ventilation system quickly?

■ Are there provisions for turning off the elevators?

■ Are there provisions for closing all exits and entrances and for securing the loading dock and garage

areas (as applicable)?

 

 

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FIGURE 25–7 Emergency planning checklist.

 

 

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■ Are there provisions for notifying all occupants—including visitors—of emergency procedures?

■ Are there provisions for asking all occupants—including visitors—to remain in the building until it is

safe to leave?

Evaluating Personnel Needs

It is important to determine the needs of workers with disabilities when developing an EAP, but to do so in

strict accordance with the Rehabilitation Act. Before evaluating the needs of personnel with disabilities,

consult your human resources department to develop guidelines that are consistent with the

Rehabilitation Act. Then ask the following types of questions during development of the EAP:

■ Has all applicable information about the needs of personnel with disabilities been collected in

accordance with the Rehabilitation Act?

■ Has the information collected been appropriately protected by sharing it only with those who need to

know it as part of emergency planning (for example, first-aid personnel, safety and health

professionals, those responsible for carrying out the EAP during an emergency)?

■ In selecting equipment, have appropriate agencies and individuals with disabilities been consulted as

to the ability of personnel with disabilities to use the equipment?

■ Have the needs of personnel with service animals been considered in the development of the plan?

■ Has the establishment of personal support networks been built into the plan?

■ Has the appropriate training been built into the plan for people who need assistance during an

emergency as well as for people who will provide the assistance?

Distributing and Communicating the Plan

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In developing an EAP, a critical element that should not be overlooked concerns how the completed plan

will be distributed to personnel and how those who developed the plan will communicate with personnel

about it. The following questions will help ensure proper development of this section of the plan:

■ How will the EAP be communicated with the same level of detail to all personnel?

■ Is the plan available on the organization’s Web site as well as in hard copy? Are there text

explanations of all graphic material contained in the plan?

■ Are training sessions contained in the plan offered in accessible locations?

■ Are the learning aids necessary to accommodate personnel with disabilities readily available in all

training locations (for example, sign-language interpreters, listening devices)?

■ Are hard copies of the EAP placed in various easily accessible locations throughout the facility?

■ Are appropriate sections of the plan (evacuation and SIP information) given to frequent visitors to the

facility?

Balancing Employer Responsibilities and Employee Right to Self- Determination

On the one hand, employers have specific responsibilities for ensuring the safety of their personnel. On

the other hand, employees with disabilities have certain rights of self-determination. To ensure that these

two issues do not collide when developing the EAP, ask the following questions:

■ Are there employees who impede the evacuation of others during practice drills? If so, has the issue

been dealt with privately and have appropriate solutions been developed?

 

 

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■ In determining whether an employee with a disability represents a direct threat in the event of an

emergency, have the following factors been considered: nature and severity of the potential harm,

likelihood that the potential harm will occur during an emergency, the risk posed by the individual in

question, the imminence of the potential harm, and the availability of reasonable accommodations

that would mitigate or eliminate the risk?

■ Have personnel with disabilities been included in the emergency planning process?

■ Has every effort been made to ensure that personnel with disabilities have not been segregated as

part of the emergency planning process?

■ Have employees with disabilities made requests for reasonable accommodations in the event of an

emergency? Have those accommodations been built into the EAP? If not, can the organization show

clearly that the requested accommodation would pose an undue hardship?

Working with First Responders

It is important to coordinate emergency planning and the resulting EPA with first-responder agencies and

organizations. These personnel and those who carry out the EAP should coordinate closely on all matters

pertaining to implementation of the plan.

■ Have first responders been made aware of any special issues relating to personnel with disabilities?

■ Does the organization have a policy regarding evacuation built into its plan? Are all stakeholders

aware of the policy and its ramifications? Has anyone expressed opposition to the policy? Has the

opposition been properly addressed?

■ Have first responders been included in all steps of the emergency planning process? If not, how will

they be made aware of all elements of the EAP?

Implementing an Elevator Policy

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Should the organization use its elevators during an emergency or close them down? This can become a

critical issue when the needs of personnel with disabilities are considered.

■ Does the organization have a policy concerning elevator use during emergencies? Has the policy been

built into the EAP?

■ Were first responders consulted during the development of the elevator policy?

■ Under what circumstances may elevators be used during an emergency? Who may operate the

elevators under these conditions?

■ Who gets priority in the use of elevators during an emergency?

■ How are personnel, including those with disabilities, evacuated in the event that elevators are

inoperable during an emergency?

Developing Emergency Notification Strategies

Developing the EAP is just one step in an ongoing process. Once the plan is developed, all stakeholders

must be notified of its contents and what they mean. The following questions will help ensure appropriate

notification:

■ What steps have been built into the plan for notifying stakeholders in the event of an emergency and

for ensuring that personnel with disabilities have access to the same information that any other

stakeholder has?

■ Have a variety of notification or communication methods been built into the EAP?

■ Do notification or communication methods account for personnel who are away from their desks or

the office?

■ Do notification strategies take into account the presence of visitors?

 

 

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Practicing and Maintaining the EAP

The EAP should be viewed as a living document that is updated and maintained continually. In addition,

all aspects of the plan should be practiced periodically to ensure that all parties know how to carry out

their responsibilities. The following questions will help ensure that the plan is properly maintained and

practiced:

■ Does the organization have a policy for the regular practice and maintenance of the EAP?

■ Does the organization comply with the policy and even exceed compliance requirements?

■ Have first responders been involved in all practice drills and have they been consulted to ensure that

all applicable equipment is appropriate and in proper working order?

■ Have drills been varied in terms of time of day and type of drill?

■ Have various unforeseen problems, roadblocks, and inhibitors been built into the drills so that

emergency personnel have opportunities to practice improvising in a realistic way?

■ Are personnel with disabilities included in all drills?

■ Does the organization have a policy built into its EAP for dealing with employees or visitors who

might need to leave the facility in the middle of an emergency drill?

EVACUATION PLANNING

The OSHA standard for evacuation planning is 29 CFR 1910.38. This standard requires a written plan for

evacuating the facility in the event of an emergency. Critical elements of the plan are marking of exit

routes, communications, outside assembly, and training.

Marking of Exit Routes

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Clearly identified and marked routes of egress are critical during a time of crisis (fire, natural disaster,

terrorist attack, etc.). To ensure that routes of egress and all related evacuation response items are clearly

marked, safety professionals should answer the following questions about the facilities for which they are

responsible:

1. Are all exit, emergency exit, and nonexit doors clearly identified and marked?

2. Are there up-to-date evacuation route maps mounted at strategic locations throughout the facility?

3. Are all egress route aisles, hallways, and stairs marked clearly and can the markings be seen in the

event of darkness?

4. Are there low-level markings posted strategically throughout the facility that can be viewed in the

event that smoke fills the facility?

5. Are all items of firefighting equipment clearly marked with directional signs so they can be easily

located in the event of an emergency?

6. Is all emergency first-aid equipment clearly marked with directional signs so that it can be easily

located in the event of an emergency?

7. Are all electrical, chemical, and physical hazards identified and clearly marked?

8. Are all physical obstructions clearly outlined?

9. Are all critical shutdown procedures and equipment identified and clearly marked?

10. Are the handrails, treads, and risers on all stairs clearly marked?

11. In the case of multicultural workforce settings, are all signs and markings provided in a bilingual or

pictogram format?

Ensuring that all signs, pictograms, and other markings relating to facility evacuation are visible during

power outages is critical. Battery backup systems are one approach that is widely used. However, there

are environments in which even the smallest spark from a battery might set off an explosion. For this

reason, some facilities find the use of photoluminescent signs a better alternative.

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Photoluminescent signs and markings absorb normal light energy from their surroundings and then

release this energy in the form of light during periods of darkness. Some of the better photoluminescent

materials will give off light for as long as 24 hours and have a maintenance-free life expectancy of up to 25

years.

Communication and Alarm Procedures

People are so accustomed to false alarms in their lives that when the real thing occurs, it can be difficult to

convince them that it’s not just another drill. In addition, people tend to trust what they can see, smell,

and hear. Consequently, if they cannot physically sense an emergency, they tend to ignore the warning.

The communication component of a facility’s evacuation plan should include procedures for early

detection of a problem, procedures for reporting an emergency, procedures for initiating an evacuation,

and procedures for providing the necessary information to employees who are being evacuated.

Notifying employees of the emergency is the function of the facility’s alarm system. However, just pulling

the alarm switch is not sufficient communication. Once the alarm has been given, verbal instructions

should be broadcast so that people know that the alarm is real (not just another drill) as well as specific

actions they should take immediately. There must also be procedures for informing evacuated employees

that the emergency is over and they can return to their work.

External communication procedures are also important. All employees should know how to notify outside

authorities of the emergency. With the advent of 911 service, this problem has been simplified. However,

do not assume that all employees will remember the number when under the stress of an emergency, or

that they will remember to dial “9” or some other code to gain access to an outside line. This problem can

be solved by placing clearly marked signs above or near telephones containing such messages as “In an

emergency dial 911” or “In an emergency dial 9911” (if it is necessary to first access an outside line).

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Outside Assembly

The company’s evacuation plan should include an assembly area to which employees go once evacuated.

This area should be well known by all employees, and employees should understand that it is critical to

assemble there so that a headcount can be taken. In addition, there should be a backup assembly area

known to all employees so they know where to go if the primary assembly area has been rendered

inaccessible or hazardous.

Part of the evacuation plan relating to assembly areas must be devoted to transient personnel—

nonemployees such as vendors, visitors, contractors, and so on. How will they know where to assemble?

Who will check to see that they have been notified of the emergency? These issues should be addressed in

the evacuation plan.

Training

Training for evacuations is a critical element of the evacuation plan. Developing a plan and then letting it

just sit on the shelf gathering dust is a formula for disaster. Everything contained in the plan that requires

action or knowledge on the part of employees should be part of the required evacuation training. Training

should be provided when employees are first hired, and retraining should be provided periodically as

various elements of the plan are updated.

Drills should be a major part of the training provided for employees. The old sports adage that says “What

you do in practice you will do in the game” applies here. When an emergency actually occurs should not

be the first time employees have gone through the action required of them in an emergency.

CUSTOMIZING PLANS TO MEET LOCAL NEEDS

Emergency plans must be location-specific. General plans developed centrally and used at all plant

locations have limited effectiveness. The following rules of thumb can be used to ensure that EAPs are

location-specific:

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1. A map of the plant. A map of the specific plant helps localize an EAP. The map should include the

locations of exits, access points, evacuation routes, alarms, emergency equipment, a central control or

command center, first-aid kits, emergency shutdown buttons, and any other important elements of

the EAP.

2. Chain of command. An organization chart illustrating the chain of command—who is responsible for

what and who reports to whom—also helps localize an EAP. The chart should contain the names and

telephone numbers (internal and external) of everyone involved in responding to an emergency. It is

critical to keep the organization chart up-to-date as personnel changes occur. It is also important to

have a designated backup person shown for every position on the chart.

3. Coordination information. All telephone numbers and contact names of people in agencies with

which the company coordinates emergency activities should be listed. Periodic contact should be

maintained with all these people so that the EAP can be updated as personnel changes occur.

4. Local training. All training should be geared toward the types of emergencies that may occur in the

plant. In addition, practice drills should take place on-site and in the specific locations where

emergencies are most likely to happen.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE

An emergency response team (ERT) is a team of personnel designated to ensure and facilitate a proper

response to an emergency. The ERT is typically composed of representatives from several different

departments such as maintenance, security, safety and health, production and processing, and medical.

The actual composition of the team depends on the size and type of company. The ERT should be

contained in the assignments and responsibilities section of the EAP.

Not all ERTs are company-based. Communities also have ERTs for responding to emergencies that occur

outside of a company environment. Such teams should be included in a company’s EAP in the

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coordinating organizations section. This is especially important for companies that use hazardous

materials.

Most dangerous spills occur on the road, and the greatest number of hazardous materials (hazmat)

incidents occurs on the manufacturer’s loading dock. More than 80 percent of chemical releases are

caused by errors in loading and unloading procedures. Community-based teams typically include

members of the police and fire departments who have had special training in handling hazmat

emergencies.

Another approach to ERTs is the emergency response network (ERN). An ERN is a network of ERTs that

covers a designated geographical area and is typically responsible for a specific type of emergency.

Whether the ERT is a local company team or a network of teams covering a geographical region, it should

be included in the EAP. In-house teams are included in the assignments and responsibilities section.

Community-based teams and networks are included in the coordinating organizations section.

COMPUTERS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE

Advances in chemical technology have made responding to certain types of emergencies particularly

complicated.

Fortunately, the complications brought by technology can be simplified by technology. Expert computer

systems especially programmed for use in emergency situations can help meet the challenge of

responding to a mixed-chemical emergency or any other type of emergency involving multiple hazards.

An expert system is a computer programmed to solve problems. Such systems rely on a database of

knowledge about a very particular area, an understanding of the problems addressed in that area, and

expertise in solving problems in that area. Expert systems use suppositional rules called heuristics to

make decisions. Human thought processes work

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in a similar manner. For example, if our senses provide the brain with input suggesting the stovetop is

hot, the decision is made not to touch it. In an if-then format, this may read as follows:

Safety Fact: Responding to Chemical Spills

To respond quickly and effectively to a chemical spill, the ERT must have the right equipment. Standard

equipment should include a portable spill cart that can be quickly rolled to the site of a chemical spill.

This cart should contain at least the following items:

■ Spill suppression and absorption materials such as pads, blankets, and pillows

■ Mops and brooms

■ Acid neutralizers

■ Barricade devices or materials such as mesh or tape

■ Appropriate personal protective gear (for example, gloves, eye protection, aprons, coveralls)

IF hot, THEN do not touch.

This similarity to human thought processes is why the science on which expert systems are based is

known as artificial intelligence.

A modern expert system used for responding to chemical emergencies provides the types of information

needed to respond properly:

■ Personal protective equipment

■ Methods to be used in cleaning up the toxic release

■ Decontamination procedures

■ Estimation of the likelihood that employees or the community will be exposed to hazard

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■ Reactions that may result from interaction of chemicals

■ Combustibility of chemicals and other materials on hand

■ Evacuation information

■ Impact of different weather conditions on the situation

■ Recommended first-aid procedures

■ Community notification procedures

■ Follow-up procedures

Expert systems can be user-friendly so that computer novices have no difficulty interacting with them.

The advantages of expert systems are that they do not panic or get confused, they consider every possible

solution in milliseconds, they are not biased, they do not become fatigued, and they are detailed.

DEALING WITH THE PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMA OF EMERGENCIES

In addition to the physical injuries and property damage that can occur in emergencies, modern safety

and health professionals must also be prepared to deal with potential psychological damage.

Psychological trauma among employees involved in workplace disasters is as common as it is among

combat veterans.

Trauma is psychological stress. It occurs as the result of an event, typically a disaster or some kind of

emergency, so shocking that it impairs a person’s sense of security or well-being. Traumatic events are

typically unexpected and shocking, and they involve the reality or threat of death.

 

 

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Dealing with Emergency-Related Trauma

The typical approach to an emergency can be described as follows: control it, take care of the injured,

clean up the mess, and get back to work. Often, the psychological aspect is ignored. This leaves witnesses

and other coworkers to deal on their own with the trauma they’ve experienced. It is important to respond

to trauma quickly, within 24 hours if possible and within 72 hours in all cases. The purpose of the

response is to help employees get back to normal by enabling them to handle what they have experienced.

This is best accomplished by a team of people who have had special training. Such a team is typically

called the trauma response team (TRT).

Trauma Response Team

A company’s TRT may consist of safety and health personnel who have undergone special training or fully

credentialed counseling personnel, depending on the size of the company. In any case, the TRT should be

included in the assignments and responsibilities section of the EAP.

The job of the TRT is to intervene as early as possible, help employees acknowledge what they have

experienced, and give them opportunities to express how they feel about it to people who are qualified to

help. The qualified to help aspect is very important. TRT members who are not counselors or mental

health professionals should never attempt to provide care that they are not qualified to offer. Part of the

trauma training that safety and health professionals receive involves recognizing the symptoms of

employees who need professional care and referring them to qualified care providers.

In working with employees who need to deal with what they have experienced, but are not so

traumatized as to require referral for outside professional care, a group approach is best.

The group approach shows employees they are not alone and provides comfort in numbers.

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Convincing Companies to Respond

Modern safety and health professionals may find themselves having to convince higher management of

the need to have a TRT. Some corporate officials may not believe that trauma even exists. Others may

acknowledge its presence but view trauma as a personal problem that employees should handle on their

own.

In reality, psychological trauma that is left untreated can manifest itself as posttraumatic stress disorder,

the same syndrome experienced by some combat veterans.

In today’s competitive marketplace, companies need all their employees operating at peak performance

levels. Employees experiencing trauma-related disorders will not be at their best. Safety and health

professionals should use this rationale when it is necessary to convince higher management of the need to

provide a company-sponsored trauma response team.

RECOVERING FROM DISASTERS

Many organizations put a great deal of effort into planning for disaster response, including emergency

evacuation. But what about after the disaster?

A comprehensive disaster recovery plan is a must. It should have at least the following components:

recovery coordinator, recovery team, recovery analysis and planning, damage assessment and salvage

operations, recovery communications, and employee support and assistance. The overall goal of a disaster

recovery plan is to get an organization fully operational again as quickly as possible.

Recovery Coordinator

There must be one person who has ultimate responsibility and authority for disaster recovery. This

person must have both the ability and the authority to take command of the situation, assess the recovery

needs, delegate specific responsibilities, approve the necessary resources, interact with outside agencies,

and activate the organization’s overall response.

 

 

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Recovery Team

The recovery team consists of key personnel to whom the disaster coordinator can delegate specific

responsibilities. These responsibilities include facility management, security, human resources,

environmental protection (if applicable), communications, and the various personnel needed to restart

operations.

Recovery Analysis and Planning

This phase involves assessing the impact of the disaster on the organization and establishing both short-

and long-term recovery goals. The more recovery analysis and planning that can be done, the better. One

of the ways to do this is to consider various predictable scenarios and plan for them. This is the business

equivalent of the war-gaming activities that take place in the military.

Damage Assessment and Salvage Operations

This component of the plan has two elements: preparedness and recovery. The preparedness element

should include the following information: (1) a comprehensive inventory of all property at the facility in

question; (2) a checklist of the items on the inventory that are essential for maintaining the facility; (3) a

list of all personnel who will aid in the recovery (make sure to have fully trained and qualified backup

personnel in case a primary player is not available or is injured during the emergency); (4) a list of all

vendors, contractors, and so on whose assistance will be needed during the damage assessment and

salvage phase of recovery; (5) a worksheet that can be used to document all actions taken during recovery

operations; and (6) procedures for quickly establishing a remote operational site.

The recovery element should include procedures for securing workspace for the recovery team and

coordinator; identifying areas of the facility that must be accessible; maintaining security at the facility

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against looting and vandalism; analyzing and inspecting damage to the facility and reporting it to the

recovery coordinator; assessing the extent of damage to goods, supplies, and equipment; photographing

and videotaping damage to the facility; taking appropriate action to prevent additional damage to the

facility; repairing, restoring, and resetting fire detection and suppression equipment; and investigating

accidents.

Recovery Communications

Communication is one of the most important considerations in disaster recovery. This component of the

plan should deal with both who is to be notified and how that is to take place. The “how” aspects concern

backup procedures for telephone service, e-mail, and so forth. Will cell phones be used? Will radio

stations be part of the mix? Will “walkie-talkie” type radios be used for communicating on-site? The

following list contains the types of entities who might have to be contacted as part of the disaster recovery

operation:

■ Customers

■ Vendors and suppliers

■ Insurance representatives

■ Employees’ families

■ Appropriate authorities

■ Media outlets (radio and television stations and newspapers)

Employee Support and Assistance

After a disaster, employees are likely to need various types of assistance, including financial, medical, and

psychological. The following steps for developing this component of the disaster recovery plan are

recommended:

 

 

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1. Determine postdisaster work schedules and provide them to employees. Include overtime work if it

will be necessary, and make sure employees know that flexibility in scheduling work hours will be

important until the recovery is complete.

 

 

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2. Plan for the whole range of employee-assistance services that might be needed, including medical,

transportation, financial, shelter, food, water, clothing, and psychological services (trauma, shock, and

stress counseling).

3. Plan for the provision of grief counseling. The best way to handle this is to assign grief counseling to

the company’s employee assistance program provider.

4. Plan for the possible need to relocate the facility as part of disaster recovery.

5. Plan to give employees opportunities to participate in personal actions taken on behalf of fatally

injured employees and their families. Work for employee consensus before deciding what to do for

these families.

6. Plan to fully inform all employees about what happened, why, how the company is responding in the

short term, and how it will respond in the long term. Be sure to build in ways to let employees know

the company cares about them and will do everything possible to protect their safety.

TERRORISM IN THE WORKPLACE

This section describes the roles that employers and their safety and health personnel can play in

preparing for, preventing, and responding to terrorist attacks in the workplace.

Role of the Employer

There is no question that the threat of terrorist attacks has become an ever-present reality in today’s

workplace. Because this is the case, employers clearly have a role to play in preparing for terrorist attacks,

taking all prudent precautions to prevent them, and in responding properly should an attack occur.

Because terrorism threatens the safety and health of employees, it is more than just a security issue; it is

also an occupational safety and health issue.

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The roles of employers and safety and health professionals relating to terrorism in the workplace are

summarized below:

Run a safe and caring operation. Employees watch the nightly news and read their morning

newspapers. They know what is going on in their world. As a result, many are discomfited by the

possibility that they or their workplace might become the target of a terrorist attack. Consequently,

the first responsibility of the employer is to run a safe operation in which employees know their

safety is a high priority. Many of the engineering, administrative, training, and enforcement actions

taken to make the workplace safe from occupational hazards will also help mitigate the threat of

terrorism.

Listen to employees. Employees are concerned about the threat of terrorism, and they have a right to

be. Employers should take the concerns of employees seriously, and deal with them. Answer

questions, communicate openly and frequently, and refer employees who need professional help to

the employee assistance program.

Train employees. Security and safety procedures do little good unless employees know what they are

and how to use them. In addition, personnel in certain positions need to have specialized knowledge

relating to terrorism. For example, mailroom personnel need to be trained in how to screen incoming

mail for biohazards and explosives.

Communicate. Talk with employees openly and frequently. Let them know what the company knows.

It is better for employees to hear news from the company than to receive it in the form of third-party

gossip and rumors. Before giving out information, however, it is a good idea to verify it. Check with

local authorities or go online to one of the following Web sites: snopes.com or urbanlegends.com.

Know your personnel. Institute background checks as part of the hiring process. Make sure that

supervisors get to know their direct reports well enough to sense when something is wrong with one

of them. If inconsistencies in normal behavioral patterns occur, address them right away.

 

 

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Empower personnel. Empower employees to back away from a situation that does not feel right or

that makes them uncomfortable. Be flexible in allowing them to have time off for family activities.

This can be especially important following particularly busy times for employees who have worked

longer than normal hours.

Harden the site against external threats and restrict access. Insulate the workplace from negative

outside influences, control who has access to the workplace, and take all necessary steps to reduce the

exposure of employees to potential threats. Call in security experts if necessary to help develop and

implement the necessary controls.

Remove any barriers to clear visibility around the facility. The better employees can see around them,

the less likely it will be that a terrorist will be able to pull off a surprise attack. The trees, shrubs, and

bushes that make the perimeter of the facility and parking lot so attractive can be used by

unauthorized personnel to hide while attempting to gain access.

Have and enforce parking and delivery regulations. Arrange parking spaces so that no car is closer to

a building than 100 feet. This will lessen the likelihood of damage from a car bomb. In addition, have

strict delivery procedures so that terrorists posing as delivery personnel do not gain access through

this means.

Make sure that visitors can be screened from a distance. Arrange the facility so that visitors are

channeled into a specific area, an area in which they can be viewed by company personnel from a

distance. This will lessen the likelihood of a terrorist gaining access by overpowering or killing access-

control personnel.

Keep all unstaffed entrance doors locked and alarmed. Employees need to be able to get out of the

building through any exit door, but access into the building should be channeled through doors

staffed by access-control personnel.

Make air intakes and other utilities inaccessible to all but designated maintenance personnel.

Releasing toxic material into the air intake is one way terrorists could harm the highest possible

number of people. The likelihood of this happening can be decreased by locating air intakes in

inaccessible locations.

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Prevent access to roofs and upper stories. Terrorists who cannot gain access on the ground floor

might simply gain entry through doors and other openings on the roof. Consequently, it is important

to keep roof doors locked from the outside and alarmed. They should open from the inside, but doing

so should trigger an alarm. It is also important to establish control procedures for emergency escape

routes from the roof and upper stories so that these avenues are not used by terrorists trying to gain

access into the building.

Secure trash containers. The grounds should be kept free of debris and clutter. Further, trash

containers should be secured either by keeping them inside the building’s wall or, if kept outside, at a

distance from the building.

Ensure that employees, contractors, and visitors wear badges. Establish a system in which all

employees, contractors, and visitors must wear badges in order to gain access to the facility. Require

identification of all visitors and an internal sponsor before providing them with badges. Have visitors

sign in and out on every visit.

Have an emergency response plan and practice it periodically. Plan for all predictable exigencies and

practice the various components of the plan on a regular basis.

Be cautious of information placed on your company’s Web site. Make sure that your company’s Web

site does not contain information that can be used by terrorists such as detailed maps, floor plans, or

descriptions of hazardous materials stored on-site.

Keep up-to-date with the latest safety and security strategies. Crime Prevention Through

Environmental Design (CPTED) should become part of the knowledge base of safety and health

professionals. For the latest information concerning CPTED, visit the following Web site periodically:

cops.usdoj.gov and search on Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.

Protect the integrity of your facility’s key system. Terrorists can use any key from your facility to

make their own master key if they know how, and many do. To make

 

 

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matters worse, they share information about how to make master keys via the Internet. The following

procedures will help protect the integrity of your facility’s key system: (a) restrict access to keys

(including restroom keys); (b) consider not using master keys; and (c) switch from a key system to an

electronic keycard or fingerprint recognition system.

Securing Hazardous Materials

One of the tactics of terrorists is to convert hazardous materials used in the workplace into weapons of

mass destruction. Consequently, it is important for facilities that produce, use, or store any type of

hazardous materials to develop, implement, and enforce a security program that denies terrorists access

to these materials.

A hazmat security plan should have two broad components: personnel security and physical security. The

fundamental elements of the personnel component of the plan are to (1) determine who should be

granted access to the materials; (2) conduct comprehensive background checks on all individuals who

require access; (3) submit employees who require access to psychological screening to ensure stability;

and (4) require identification badges with photographs or fingerprints of those authorized access.

The physical security component consists of measures taken to prevent or control access to the hazardous

materials in question. Security practices in this component should be integrated and layered by using a

combination of measures, including fences, lights, electronic alarm systems, guards, reaction forces, and

the two-person rule that requires two employees to be present in order to gain access to the hazardous

materials. A good source of help concerning how to develop a plan for keeping hazardous materials out of

the hands of terrorists is as follows: bt.cdc.gov/Agnet/Agentlist.asp.

RESUMING BUSINESS AFTER A DISASTER

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After a disaster in the workplace—regardless of whether the source of the disaster was natural,

accidental, or terrorist related—a comprehensive hazard assessment should be completed before business

is resumed. Before resuming business, an organization should consider the following factors:

■ Structural integrity. Has the structural integrity of the building been checked by competent

engineering professionals to ensure that it is safe to enter?

■ Utility checks. Have all utilities—gas, electricity, water, sewer—been checked by competent

professionals to ensure that there are no leaks, cracks, loose wires, and so on? Have the appropriate

utility companies given their approval for reopening? Remember that if reopening involves the use of

electric generators, these devices should not be used inside the building because they can create a

carbon monoxide hazard.

■ Cleanup protection. Make sure that cleanup crews are properly protected from any hazardous

materials or conditions that might have been created by the disaster. Make sure they properly use the

appropriate personal protective gear, and comply with all applicable safety and health regulations

and procedures as they clean the facility.

■ Health and sanitation. Kitchens, bathrooms, and any area in which food or potentially hazardous or

toxic substances are stored should be checked by competent professionals and thoroughly cleaned to

prevent the exposure of employees and customers to hazardous conditions.

■ Air quality. Make sure the air quality in the facility is tested by competent professionals before

allowing personnel to enter the building. Certain types of disasters such as hurricanes, for example,

might have caused the proliferation of mold and mildew. The air should be checked for any

potentially hazardous biological or chemical agents that could be harmful to humans.

■ Ventilation. Make sure that all types of ductwork and ventilation have been checked for the presence

of potentially harmful biological and chemical agents as well as for dust and debris that might impede

airflow. Once it appears that ventilations systems

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are clean, have the air-conditioning and heating systems started up and all ventilation systems

checked again before allowing personnel back into the building. When the air-conditioning and

heating systems are restarted, blow cold air through them, even in winter. This will help prevent the

growth of mold in the ventilation ducts.

Safety Fact: Federal Guidelines for Resuming Business

Businesses may obtain comprehensive federal guidelines for resuming business after a disaster from

the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or the Federal Emergency

Management Agency (FEMA) at these Web sites:

cdc.gov/niosh

fema.gov

■ Walls, ceilings, and floors. Check walls and ceilings to ensure that no materials are in danger of falling

off—inside for occupants and outside for pedestrians. Check floors for any hazards that might

contribute to slipping and falling.

■ Safety equipment. Check all fire extinguishers, all types of alarms, and any other safety equipment to

determine whether it has been damaged. Make sure that all safety equipment is in proper working

order before allowing personnel to reenter the facility.

■ Lighting. Ensure that all illumination devices are in proper working order and that all personnel have

the required amount of illumination to do their jobs. Employees should not return to work unless the

necessary illumination is available and working.

■ Hazardous waste removal. Any type of potentially hazardous material that is left lying around after

the disaster should be collected and properly disposed of. Broken glass, debris, litter, and sharp-edged

material should be removed before employees are allowed to return to work.

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■ Machines and equipment. All machines and equipment should be checked carefully before they are

reenergized. All electrical, gas, hydraulic, fill, drain, and plumbing lines should be checked for leaks

and proper connections before the machines are energized for use.

■ Furniture. Check all furniture to ensure its structural integrity. Make sure that fasteners, braces, and

supports have not been damaged during the emergency or that furniture has not become unstable

due to water damage.

SUMMARY

1. An emergency is a potentially life-threatening situation, usually occurring suddenly and

unexpectedly. Emergencies may be the result of natural or human causes.

2. Preparing for emergencies involves planning, practicing, evaluating, and adjusting. An immediate

response is critical in emergencies.

3. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act has the following four main components:

emergency planning, emergency notification, information requirements, and toxic chemical release

reporting.

4. For proper coordination of the internal emergency response, it is important that one person be in

charge and that everyone involved knows who that person is.

5. Because there is no way to predict when first aid may be needed, part of preparing for emergencies

should include training employees to administer first aid. In certain cases, OSHA requires that

companies have at least one employee on-site who has been trained in first aid.

6. In addition to providing first-aid training, it is important to have well-stocked first-aid kits readily

available, have personal protective devices available, post emergency telephone numbers, and keep

all employees informed.

 

 

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7. A company’s emergency action plan should be a collection of small plans for each anticipated

emergency. These plans should have the following components: procedures, coordination,

assignments and responsibilities, accident prevention strategies, and schedules.

8. The OSHA standard for evacuation planning is 29 CFR 1910.38. This standard requires a written plan

for evaluating the facility in the event of an emergency. Critical elements of the plan are as follows:

marking of exit routes, communications, outside assembly, and training.

9. EAPs should be customized to be location-specific by including a map, an organization chart, local

coordination information, and local training schedules. They should consider the needs of all

personnel, including those with disabilities.

10. An emergency response team is a special team to handle general and localized emergencies, facilitate

evacuation and shutdown, protect and salvage company property, and work with civil authorities.

11. An emergency response network is a network of emergency response teams that covers a designated

geographical area.

12. Computers can help simplify some of the complications brought by advances in technology. Expert

systems mimic human thought processes in making decisions on an if-then basis regarding

emergency responses.

13. Trauma is psychological stress. It typically results from exposure to a disaster or emergency so

shocking that it impairs a person’s sense of security or well-being. Trauma left untreated can manifest

itself as posttraumatic stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by intrusive thoughts,

flashbacks, paranoia, concentration difficulties, rapid heartbeat, and irritability.

14. A disaster recovery plan should have at least the following components: recovery coordinator,

recovery team, recovery analysis and planning, damage assessment and salvage operations, recovery

communications, and employee support and assistance.

15. Employers can help decrease the likelihood of a terrorist attack on their facilities by taking the

following actions: run a safe and caring operation; listen to employees; train employees;

communicate; know your personnel; empower personnel; harden the site against external threats and

restrict access; remove any barriers to clear visibility around the facility; have and enforce parking

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and delivery regulations; make sure that visitors can be screened from a distance; keep all unstaffed

entrance doors locked from the outside and alarmed; make air intakes and other utilities inaccessible

to all but designated personnel; prevent access to roofs and upper stories; secure trash containers;

ensure that employees, contractors, and visitors wear badges; have an emergency response plan and

practice it on a regular basis; be cautious of what information is placed on your company’s Web site;

keep up-to-date with the latest safety and security strategies; and protect the integrity of your facility’s

key system.

16. Secure hazardous materials so that terrorists cannot gain access to them for use in making bombs

and other weapons of mass destruction. A hazmat security plan should have two components:

personnel security and physical security.

17. All systems, conditions, and potential hazards should be checked and corrected as appropriate before

resuming business after a disaster.

KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS

Adjusting

Chain of command

Elevator policy

Emergency action plan (EAP)

Emergency coordinator

Emergency notification

Emergency planning

Emergency Planning and Community

Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)

 

 

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Emergency response network (ERN)

Emergency response plan

Emergency response team (ERT)

Evaluating

Expert system

 

 

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First-aid training

Heuristics

Information requirements

Local emergency planning committees (LEPCs)

Location-specific

Order of response

OSHA standards

Planning

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Practicing

Shelter-in-place (SIP)

Spill cart

State emergency response commissions (SERCs)

Toxic chemical release reporting

Trauma

Trauma response team (TRT)

Traumatic events

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REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. Define the term emergency.

2. Explain the rationale for emergency preparation.

3. List and explain the four main components of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-

Know Act.

4. Describe how a company’s emergency response effort should be coordinated.

5. How do OSHA standards relate to emergency preparation?

6. Explain how you would provide first-aid training if you were responsible for setting up a program at

your company.

7. Besides training, what other first-aid preparation should a company take?

8. What are the critical elements of OSHA’s standard for evacuation planning?

9. Describe the essential components of an EAP and explain how to build the needs of personnel with

disabilities into the plan.

10. How can a company localize its EAP?

11. Define the following emergency response concepts: ERT, ERN, and TRT.

12. What is an expert system? How can one be used in responding to an emergency?

13. What is trauma?

14. Why should a company include trauma response in its EAP?

15. Describe how a company may respond to the trauma resulting from a workplace emergency.

16. What elements should a disaster recovery plan contain?

17. How can employers prepare for the threat of terrorism?

18. Explain the precautions that should be taken before resuming business after a disaster.

ENDNOTES

1. United States Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy, Preparing the Workplace for Everyone: Accounting for the Needs of People with Disabilities. Retrieved from dol.gov/odep/pubs/ep/preparing/workplace_final.pdf on July 10, 2013.

 

 

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2. 29 CFR 1910.38.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Handling Traumatic Events. Retrieved from opm.gov/policy-data- oversight/worklife/reference-materials/traumaticevents.pdf on July 12, 2013.

8. Ibid.

9. American Society of Safety Engineers, “ASSE Offers Business Resumption Safety Checklist,” Occupational Health & Safety Online. Retrieved from ohsonline.com/stevens/ohspub.nsf/d3d5b4f938b22b6e8625670c006bc58/6600 on July 10, 2013.

 

http://opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/worklife/reference-materials/traumaticevents.pdf
http://ohsonline.com/stevens/ohspub.nsf/d3d5b4f938b22b6e8625670c006bc58/6600