Correct Assignment And Rewrite

Running head: ELECTRICITY UTILITY TRENDS 1

ELECTRICITY UTILITY TRENDS 2

 

 

 

 

 

Electricity Utility Trends

Ifedayo Abegunde

University of Maryland University College

 

Electricity Utility Trends

The production of electricity takes place at the power plants, which goes through a complex system, known as the grid. (Confusing sentence: Given the way the sentence is written, does the electricity or the power plant go through the grid?) The grid comprises (Word Choice issue: Not “comprises”- should be “is comprised”) of the transformers, power lines, electricity substations, and smart meters that connect electricity providers to its consumers. The stability of the electricity grid requires a constant supply of power, (Unnecessary comma) to meet the electricity demand. The electric utilities are responsible for maintaining the safety of their systems, and planning for the future advancement, (Unnecessary comma) to satisfy customer’s needs (US Energy Information Administration, 2017, para 1Paragraph or page number not to be used for in-text citation unless for direct quote. The purpose of this paper is to give insight to into (Word Choice) trends with electricity utilities, such as technology demand, security concerns, the smart meter and challenges with theft of energy.

Electricity Utility Top Trends

Technology demands Section Headings incorrect – See Template Provided

Findings

Top Trends in Electricity Utilities

Technology demands.

Technology is evolving, and the same is expected of power utility companies. In the past, power utility customers were contented content (Verb Tense: Should be content, not contented) with stable energy cost, with little or no power outages. Now, the use of equipment such as tablets and smartphones that allows instant access to the internet and communication channels, like the social media has changed the expectations of customers on utility providers. (A confusing sentence as written: Has social media changed customer expectations or did use of tablets and smartphones change customer expectations?) Customers are demanding for real-time access to “information …[I]nformation on the platforms of their choice, they already receive from other service providers such as a credit card company, bank or wireless provider. Why expect any different from utility providers?” (Mullarney, 2012) (Page number required for direct quote – Also, direct quote always starts with capital letter.)

Power is crucial to our day-to-day activities, and power utility companies are trusted to provide self-service options, that give up to date information at a fast speed, to stay ahead among the increased competition. (Unnecessary commas.) Utility companies are now trending towards providing customers access to daily energy use, to help identify high or low hourly usage details. This data can help customers (Singular/Plural Use Issue: Plural is correct here.) proactively track energy consumption by identifying excess in usage, especially during Christmas season, when Christmas trees and lights are lite around the clock, or when a faulty appliance runs inefficiently, pulling more energy than usual. (Comma joined run-on sentence.) Also, the demand for digital controllable thermostats (Singular/Plural Use Issue: Plural is correct here.) is on the rise. Customer wants Customers want (Singular/Plural Use Issue combined with incorrect Verb Tense: Noun should be PLURAL and Verb should be present tense) the options to be able to remotely set preferred house temperature, during a certain period of the day, to ensure best energy efficiency. The future expectation of power utility company is trending toward the “smart …[S]mart thermostats, which will help customer reduce energy consumption while increasing the efficiency of households” (Sergio, Pablo, Alberto, Mario, & Alberto, 2017, para 12). See above note on direct quotes.

Research by Harper and Martin (2014) supports the utilization of smart grid equipment, such as smart meter the smart meter (Article Missing – “the”) is used by electric power industry (Confusing and unneeded phrase – Poor sentence structure) for sensing, communicating, measuring and managing information. This helps power utility the power utility (Article Missing – “the”) industry to (Confusing and unneeded phrase – Poor sentence structure) accurately communicate with their customer, (unnecessary comma) the restoration and response time based on data gathered from the smart grid. (Sorry, I am confused here…Poor sentence structure. restoration and response time for what?) Customer attitude toward smart grids, does not only focus on its information communication technologies or its existing electronic grid structures and functions, but the aim to empower the development of immediate problem solving, and providing real-time data at their fingertips, reducing the old-fashioned need to calls the utility company. (Again, a very confusing, comma joined, run-on sentence. I have no solid understanding what you are trying to say in this sentence.) NOTE: Grammar and Word Choice Checking stopped at this point.

More focus on security (Period Missing)

More focus on security.

The inevitable demand for complex digital technology will likely leave power utility industry, subject to devastating attacks. Traditionally, utility companies collect usage data, through a staff trained for meter reading and equipment’s were inspected by engineers for safety and accuracy. Now, the increase in remotely controlled equipment and improved electric technology network, warrant the need to focus more on increasing security measures, preventing terrorists and hackers from penetrating. Power utility providers are held accountable for confidentiality, and reliability of all customer information collected; “as power utilities deploy smart grid technologies and give customers access to usage data via smartphones, for instance, they might unwittingly introduce new avenues of attack” (Herman, Miller, & Schutt, 2014, para 21).

Therefore, it is important to identify all potential security threats over power utility, and recommend appropriate solutions for safeguarding their network. There are some security requirements to be considered in ensuring data safety. How does power utility preserve customer’s privacy? Power utility can use data encryption codes; these codes can only be identified by its user to ensure confidentiality. Also, to avoid the integrity of the information collected from being compromised, utility providers can use Message Authentication Code or hash function along with encryption during data transmission process. Lastly, another security layer is called “source authentication, which gives utility provider the opportunity to verify whether the right source sends the received data or not. In this case, an attacker cannot participate or join into any activities in the targeted network, because it has no privilege to access the network” (Muhammad, Zurina, Zuriati, & Mohamad, 2015).

Electric smart meters trends (Period Missing)

Electric smart meters trends.

Electric smart meters have grown in the recent years, and its forecast and trend are expected to grow till 2019 in the United States. Electric companies in emerging economies, are embracing smart meters use, it functions ranges from communicating usage in real time bases, detecting outages and helping to uncover theft. “Smart meters market is dominating America, especially in North America; the increase is highly accredited to government initiatives, which includes giving funds and making smart meters compulsory in a number of states, such as California and Texas. Also electric providers like AEP, PG and E, Southern California Edison, Southern Company, Florida Power and Light, and Oncor are part of the leading utility groups committed to a full-scale sanction of smart meters to all their customers” (PR, 2015, para 3).

The introduction of smart meters to a certain degree has been controversial, mostly with residential customers, while some customers argue the overall benefit of this technology has remained unproven; another uncertainty was due to the failure of electric company’s part, to educate and better communicate the importance of the newly-installed advanced meters, before deploying the metering programs. Have smart meters improved utility performance over the years? In 2012, hurricane sandy was a devastating misfortune that left many people dead, and millions of people without electricity. The impact on power grid prompted government and executives to focus more closely, on how to strengthen the infrastructure response to storms. According to Tom Kuhn, the CEO of Edison Electric Institute; there has been a tremendous investment in the grid, since hurricane sandy. (Loveless, 2015, para 2). Lesson learned from hurricane sandy help built a smarter and more resilient storm grid.

This improvement was more evident based on the fast outage restoration with Hurricane Matthews. Florida Power & Light reported, ninety nine percent of more than 1 million customers were restored within two days, which would have taken ten to fifteen days; “Among the improvements with utilities, are smart meters that report outages immediately, hardened poles that stand up better to high winds, and automated switches on poles and wires that responded without the need for manual intervention.” (Loveless, 2015 para 7).

Key Emerging Issue

Theft of electricity challenges the smart meter infrastructure (Incorrect Format)

The Impact of Electric Smart Meters on Electricity Utilities

Smart grid infrastructures have improved over the years with more ability to better withstand the storm, but theft of energy still challenges the smart network. Theft of energy is also known as stealing electricity. It is a way of tapping into electric current to fuel a property that bypasses the smart metering network, to evade payment. Even when smart meters have a tamper detection feature that notifies the network when a meter is manipulated or removed from the wall, it does not confirm theft. Identifying theft through the smart metering network, still requires manual processing to confirm the theft. This can be inefficient, expensive and time consuming (Depuru, Wang, Devabhaktuni, & Green, 2013).

There are several consequences associated with theft of energy. It can damage the grid, due to unregulated high load, which can cause power outages, transformer failure, electrical system failure, and house fire resulting to fatality. Theft of energy behaviors can severely affect utility provider’s revenue, which can lead to an increase in other surcharges to legitimate customers. “It is high time to create a fundamental understanding of the idea that electricity theft is not permissible and highly damaging for all citizens. It results in tangible losses, not only to the utility, but the whole economy. Good governance laws, development of a set of strict laws against electricity theft and effective implementation of such policies, will go a long way towards eradicating” this behavior (Economic Review, 2010, para 5)

The future is here; as the utility companies are now trending towards providing customers access to daily energy use, which helps them to track and reduce energy consumption, using a smart meter. The smart meter is one of the innovations of the utility companies; used for communicating usage in real time bases, detecting outages and helping to uncover theft; this also interests the government. Unfortunately, this does not come without its fault – energy theft. However, this can be controlled if people are educated about the harm caused by energy theft.

Economic Review (2010)

References

Depuru, S., R., Wang, L., Devabhaktuni, V., & Green, R. C. (2013). High performance computing for detection of electricity theft. International Journal of Electrical Power And Energy Systems47(21-30). doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.201210-31

Fresh laws needed to curb electricity theft. (2010). Economic Review, 41(6/7), 3. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=793ff13a-a46b-4269-9891-5fad89910db9%40sessionmgr103

Harper, J., & Martin, S. (2014). Mapping a safer and more reliable energy future. Electric Perspectives39(2), 48. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=96434a4c-28ae-4c89-a1b5-8e07cfe4f45a%40sessionmgr101

Herman, C., Miller, R. & Schutt, T. (2014). Top 5 things utilities should watch for in 2014. Electric Light & Power92(3), 16. Retrieved from http://www.elp.com/articles/print/volume-92/issue-3/sections/finance/top-5-things-utilities-should-watch-for-in-2014.html

How electricity is delivered to consumers. (2017). US Energy Information Administration, Retrieved from https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=electricity_delivery (This is a Website retrieval, not a newsletter. You are using the wrong reference format here.)

Loveless, B. (2016). Improvements help utilities respond quicker to hurricane storm damage. USA Today, Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2016/10/17/utilities-electric-grid-hurricane-storm-damage/92286914/

Muhammad, D., Hafiz, A., Zurina M., H., Zuriati A., Z., & Mohamad A., M. (2015). Attacks, vulnerabilities and security requirements in smart metering networks. KSII Transactions on Internet & Information Systems9(4). doi:10.3837/tiis.201504-13

Mullarney, J. (2012). Redefining customer service. Powergrid International17(4), 50-52.

, . 20171025165917622145891

Economic Review Fresh laws needed to curb electricity theft.Economic Review. (2010, June/July). Fresh laws needed to curb electricity theft. Economic Review, 41(6/7), 3-4. 20171025152239172905325

PR Newswire, (2015), Smart meters market by type, by end user, and region – Trends and forcastst to 2019. Retrieved from http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/smart-meters-market-by-type-by-end-user–region—trends-and-forecast-to-2019-300074304.html 201710181039401256880999

Sergio, B., Pablo, C., Alberto, L., Mario, M., & Alberto, A. (2017). Smart thermostats: An experimental facility to test their capabilities and savings potential. Sustainability, 9(8). Retrieved from http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/8/1462/htm

 

LMP Comments:

Ifedayo, did you follow my instructions to contact the Effective Writing Center and work with them on all your papers to ensure that your grammar, sentence structure, word choice, syntax, punctuation and subject/verb agreement issues were being corrected by a tutor? IF you did, why are there still so many of the same type of errors in this paper?

One of my tasks is to ensure that students are writing in Standard American English, using proper grammar and sentence structure so their writing is easily read and comprehended. I had to work hard at times to understand the first four paragraphs of this paper.

There were also problems with section headings (compare my corrections to the template that was provided and the discussion at the end of that template on how to use 1st, 2nd and 3rd level section headings in an APA format paper) and in text citations as noted.

Ifedayo, I stopped trying to correct all the errors in both content and format after about 2 hours of work.

One of the things I noticed, as I was checking the reference formats, was that some had retrieval information (web addresses or doi numbers) but some didn’t, even though I found them in the UMUC Library. The one thing they seemed to have in common was that a lot of the content elements seem to have been taken from the “citation” section of the database they were found in. As I said in classroom announcements and attachments to announcements, these ciations from the database invariably have one or more errors. For example, several of your references have a starting page number, but no ending page number. I spot checked, and most of them have both starting and ending page numbers.

Were you using the APA menu when you worked on this document? I know you have the Reference Point Software, because my system identified it has having been written using the same application I have in my computers. When you work on references, are us using this menu and task ribbon on next page):

 

This is where you actually format your references. You can see all the options in the task ribbon. If you click on one of them, like “Journal” you get this fill-in-the –blank “wizard menu:”

This is the first of 3. As you finish the input to one menu, you click “OK” to move to the next. The next menu collects data on journal name, article title, volume and issue number, etc.:

When you have filled in all this data, go to the tab highlighted in the blue box, and fill in the web retrieval data.

When you have done all of that, you will automatically start to create a properly alphabetized reference list, that is also properly formatted in hanging indentation format.

It seems to me that you are not using this function, otherwise your references would be more completely formatted.

Please contact the Effective Writing Center, and have a tutor work with you on this paper. Also, revise and correct your references in in-text citations. Re-submit your corrected paper no later than 11:30 PM (EDT) on Saturday, October 28.

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