Unit 1 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

“Human conduct that is in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or 1. a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws” is a definition of ______.

criminala. devianceb. crimec. criminology d.

The belief that crime is an antisocial act of such a nature that repression is necessary to 2. preserve the existing system of society is the basis of the ________ perspective on crime.

politicala. legalb. sociologicalc. psychological d.

The psychological perspective sees crime primarily as ______. 3.

problem behaviora. a violation of a lawb. an offense against human relationshipsc. an antisocial act d.

Which of the following behaviors is criminal only when committed by a child or youth? 4.

shoplifting a candy bara. drinking alcoholb. joyridingc. speeding d.

The pluralistic perspective suggests that behaviors are typically criminalized through ______. 5.

the existence of shared norms and valuesa. consensusb. the general agreement of most members of societyc. a political process d.



Unit 1 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

________ is the field of study that is concerned primarily with the causes and consequences of 6. crime.

Criminalitya. Criminal justiceb. Criminalisticsc. Criminology d.

Which of the following crime reduction or prevention strategies is most characteristic of the 7. social problems perspective?

allocating federal funds to help states build and operate more prisonsa. a move to broaden police powers by increasing the number of exceptions to the b. Exclusionary Rule a government-funded initiative to enhance educational opportunities among low-income c. individuals rewriting state statutes to increase the severity of punishment for violent offenders, such d. as three-strikes laws

This book recognizes that crime is not an isolated individual activity but a(n) ________ event. 8.

economic a. social b. deviant c. political d.

An American visitor witnessing a crime in Japan may interpret the events differently than 9. someone born within the Japanese culture. This is an example of ______.

intercultural perspectivea. politicizationb. social relativityc. deviant perception d.

Ultimately, crime is a result of the coming together of inputs provided by all but which of the 10. following?

the mediaa. the criminal justice systemb. the victimc. society d.



Unit 1 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Which of the following is a background contribution by the offender? 11.

a specific intenta. a genetic inventoryb. a drug-induced state of mindc. a peculiar motivation d.

The “evidence” in evidence-based criminology refers to ______. 12.

experimental scientific findingsa. social discussionsb. fingerprints found at the crime scenec. information obtained from witnesses to the crime d.

The ideas of armchair criminologists achieve acclaim in all but which of the following ways? 13.

the association of their ideas with institutions of higher learninga. publication in prestigious essaysb. the involvement of distinguished lecturersc. the systematic collection of related acts d.

A(n) ________ is a series of interrelated propositions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, 14. and ultimately control some class of events.

theorya. experimentb. hypothesisc. variable d.

Which of the following statements is an example of a theory? 15.

Poverty is a root cause of illegal drug use.a. Increasing job opportunities will not reduce crime.b. Requiring everyone to earn a high school degree will lead to a reduction in crime. c. Crime rates increased in the past year. d.



Unit 1 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

After the results of a large research study on police procedures were publicized, the 16. researchers were interested in determining whether the study had affected police policy. The researcher telephoned a large number of big-city police departments and asked a number of questions about department policies and procedures. This is an example of which data-gathering strategy?

participant observationa. case studyb. survey researchc. secondary analysis d.

After research into the effectiveness of Project D.A.R.E. found that the program was 17. ineffective, publication of the research results was blocked. A representative of the National Institute of Justice stated that they did not agree with one of the study’s major findings. What ethical issue applies here?

data confidentialitya. protection of human subjectsb. informed consentc. objectivity d.

In a research report, the ________ is a brief summation of the findings of the report. 18.

analysisa. abstractb. prefacec. review of the existing literature d.

Which submission requirement tends to be the same for all professional refereed journals? 19.

the style of the referencesa. the amount of the submission feeb. a prohibition on simultaneous submissionsc. the method of submission d.

Early Roman law derived from the ______. 20.

Twelve Tablesa. Code of Babyloniab. Justinian Codec. Code of Hammurabi d.



Unit 1 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

The belief that the natural human condition at birth is that of a blank slate is attributed to 21. ______.

Jean-Jacques Rousseaua. John Lockeb. Thomas Painec. Thomas Hobbes d.

Which type of crime would Cesare Beccaria be most likely to recommend be punished through 22. the use of corporal punishment?

inciting revolutiona. assaultb. treasonc. burglary d.

Jeremy Bentham’s ________ approach emphasizes the determination of behavior based on the 23. amount of pleasure or pain the behavior can be expected to produce.

positivista. hedonistic calculusb. common lawc. hard determinism d.

In routine activities theory, an individual who effectively discourages crime is known as a 24. ______.

suitable targeta. capable guardianb. defensible victimc. motivated offender d.

Rational choice theories have been criticized for ______. 25.

an underemphasis on individual choicea. a focus on biological bases of criminal behaviorb. an overemphasis on the role of social factors in crime causationc. an overemphasis on individual choiced.



Unit 2 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

Which of the following statements would probably not be made by a biological criminologist? 1.

A tendency towards crime may be inherited.a. Some humans may be further along the evolutionary ladder than others.b. Individual free will is linked to variations in crime rates.c. Biological differences between men and women may explain gender differences in crime d. rates.

According to positivism, how is valid knowledge acquired? 2.

the exercise of reasona. adherence to beliefb. rational deductionc. observation d.

The scientific study of the relationships between human physical characteristics and 3. criminality is called ______.

criminal anthropologya. phrenologyb. Darwinismc. biological theory d.

According to Lombroso, which category of offenders should include someone who was tempted 4. to commit a crime by a situational or environmental factor?

criminaloidsa. born criminalsb. atavistsc. insane offenders d.

The studies of the Juke and the Kallikak families emphasized ________ as the primary source 5. of criminality.

psychologya. ecologyb. environmentc. genetics d.



Unit 2 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Which of the following social policies was developed during the eugenics movement? 6.

territorialitya. selective human breedingb. chromosomal defensesc. situational crime control d.

According to Konrad Lorenz, much of what we call “crime” is the result of ______. 7.

overcrowded living conditionsa. neurosesb. free willc. body types d.

Which of the following is not a criticism of sociobiology? 8.

It fails to integrate biology into the basic paradigm.a. It does not identify the importance of culture, social learning, and individual experiences b. in shaping behavior. It does not properly depict basic human behavior.c. There is no rational basis for applying findings from animal studies to humans. d.

One concern with early biological theories is their dismissal of the concept of ______. 9.

positivisma. genetic determinismb. heredityc. free will d.

The purpose of the Human Genome Project was to determine the complete sequence of 10. ______.


Genes ________ human action. 11.

causea. produceb. enablec. determined.



Unit 2 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Which of the following brain mechanisms may be involved in aggression? 12.

diseasea. food allergiesb. physical injuriesc. all of the above d.

What is the effect of stress on brain structure? 13.

Long-term exposure to high-level stress can reduce cognition.a. Short-term exposure to stress can increase brain development.b. Stress does not have any effect on brain structure.c. Long-term exposure to low-level stress can produce neuroplasticity. d.

What is the impact of sugar on behavior? 14.

The current evidence is unclear.a. Excess sugar consumption may lead to learning disabilities, which increase the risk of b. criminality. Excess sugar consumption may be linked to crime.c. Hypoglycemia increases violent behavior. d.

Which of the following was not listed by Wilson and Herrnstein as contributing to crime? 15.

brain structurea. personalityb. intelligencec. age d.

The psychoanalytical concept of ________ holds that a person may seek to reject his or her 16. own desires or impulses towards pleasurable instincts by excluding them from his or her own consciousness.

repressiona. Thanatosb. transferencec. morality d.



Unit 2 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

How does behavior theory differ from other psychological theories? 17.

The major determinants of behavior are seen as existing in the environment.a. The major determinants of behavior are seen as co-existing in the individual and the b. environment. The major determinants of behavior are seen as existing in the individual.c. There is no major difference. d.

________ is based on the belief that offenders need to acquire better social skills in order to 18. become more prosocial.

Correctional psychologya. Selective incapacitationb. Cognitive behavioral interventionc. The risk-need-responsivity model d.

Which of the following risk factors appears to have a relationship to later violence? 19.

psychopathya. hallucinationsb. delusionsc. a diagnosis of schizophrenia d.

What is the best predictor of adult antisocial behavior? 20.

child physical abusea. hallucinations and delusionsb. child-onset psychopathyc. early antisocial behavior d.

Which of the following is not one of the major principles of sociological theories of crime 21. causation?

Social groups, institutions, and rules, as well as the arrangements of society, all provide a. the proper focus for criminological study. Group dynamics, group organization, and subgroup relationships form the causal nexus out b. of which crime develops. It is possible to predict the specific behavior of an individual member of a given group.c. The structure of society and its relative degree of organization or disorganization are d. important factors contributing to the prevalence of criminal behavior.



Unit 2 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

According to general strain theory, which of the following is not a strain likely to cause crime? 22.

a strain that is associated with high levels of self-controla. a strain that is perceived as high in magnitudeb. a strain that is seen as unjustc. a strain that creates some pressure or incentive to engage in criminal coping d.

The development of favorable attitudes towards the use of violence involves ______. 23.

frustration or straina. biological factorsb. learned behaviorc. psychological traits d.

Some researchers suggest that ________ theories fail to distinguish between the condition of 24. social disorganization and the crimes that this condition is said to cause.

straina. ecologicalb. culture conflictc. subcultural d.

Which type of theory has been criticized for being racist? 25.

the ecological approacha. social disorganization theoryb. the subcultural approachc. strain theoryd.



Unit 3 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

Social ________ theories assume everyone has the potential to violate the law 1.

conflict a. developmentb. structurec. process d.

________ theory focuses on the strength of the bond people share with individuals and 2. institutions around them.

Social control a. Social learning b. Social structure c. Labeling d.

The idea that the behaviors of others are observed and modeled is the basis of which of Akers’ 3. primary learning mechanisms?

differential identification a. imitationb. instrumental conditioningc. differential reinforcement d.

Walter Reckless considers ________ containment to be far more effective in preventing crime. 4.

personal a. inner b. external c. outer d.

Social bond theory postulates that ______. 5.

criminal behavior is learned in the same way any other type of behavior is learneda. crime occurs because the criminal justice system stigmatizes individuals, forcing them b. into a deviant lifestyle crime occurs when there is a disparity between societal goals and the legitimate means c. available to reach those goals crime occurs when a person’s links to society are weakened or broken d.



Unit 3 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Which of the following is a criticism of differential association theory? 6.

It has little to say about secret deviants.a. It does not offer suggestions for institutional change.b. It accounts only for the communication of criminal vales, not their emergence. c. It does little to explain the origin of crime and deviance. d.

Which of the following is not a question that a life course researcher would ask? 7.

How do life transitions influence behavior?a. How do offending and victimization interact over the life cycle?b. How do early childhood characteristics lead to adult behavioral processes and outcomes?c. How do individuals make rational choices to commit crimes? d.

Which of the following factors would probably not enhance your social capital? 8.

having a “clean” record a. losing a jobb. graduating from college c. getting married d.

Marvin Wolfgang’s analysis of a birth cohort found that ________ percent of cohort members 9. accounted for over 50 percent of all arrests.

6 a. 18 b. 32 c. 10 d.

Which of the following is not one of the principles characterizing the consensus perspective? 10.

the idea that laws reflect the collective will of societya. a belief in the existence of core valuesb. the assumption that the law serves all people equallyc. a belief that law violators are representative of society as a whole d.

Which of the following is not one of the basic principles of the pluralistic perspective? 11.

the legal system is value neutrala. the legal system is concerned with the best interests of societyb. society consists of many and diverse social groupsc. the law serves all people equallyd.



Unit 3 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Austin Turk and many other conflict criminologists see crime as ______. 12.

an agreement among various factions within societya. a natural consequence of intergroup struggles over controlb. the interests of those who hold social and economic power in societyc. a consensus of opinion d.

________ criminology consists of a proactive call for change in the social conditions leading 13. to crime, whereas ________ criminology is a way of critiquing social relationships leading to crime.

Critical; radical a. Radical; pluralisticb. Radical; critical c. Critical; pluralistic d.

Which of the following is a characteristic of restorative justice? 14.

Crime is seen as an act against the state and a violation of a law.a. Offender accountability is defined as taking punishment.b. Crime is an individual act with individual responsibility.c. Victims are central to the process of resolving a crime. d.

In general, the main policy implication of social conflict theory is to ______. 15.

create social action programs to reduce social disorganization which will then lead to a a. decline in crime develop ways to influence personality characteristics which will cause crime to decreaseb. create programs to enhance self-control and build prosocial bonds which will prevent crimec. bring about social change and redistribute the wealth in society which will cause crime d. rates to fall

The primary theoretical perspective used to explain the fact that victims and offenders who are 16. intimately known to each other are disproportionately represented in homicide statistics is the ______.

critical criminological perspectivea. general theory of crimeb. selective disinhibitionc. subculture of violence thesis d.



Unit 3 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Which of the following is an example of a nonprimary homicide? 17.

Two men meet in a bar and get into an argument over the Super Bowl, during which one a. man stabs and kills the other. A man who regularly abuses his wife kills her during an abusive event.b. A woman is tired of the loud barking noises made by her next-door neighbor’s dog and kills c. the dog. The dog’s owner kills her in retaliation. None of these are nonprimary homicides. d.

The ________ perspective on rape assumes that rape is the result of idiosyncratic mental 18. disease.

feminista. evolutionaryb. psychopathologicalc. biological d.

Which of the following is not one of the types of behaviors encompassed in child sexual abuse? 19.

an adult exploits a minor sexually for purposes of profita. an adult engages in sexual activity with a minorb. an adult engages in nonsexual activity with a minorc. an adult exploits a minor for purposes of sexual gratification d.

A stalker who sees the victim as a soul mate is probably a(n) ________ stalker. 20.

predatory a. intimacy seekingb. rejected c. resentful vendetta-motivated d.

Which of the following is not one of the major property crimes, according to the FBI? 21.

arson a. robberyb. motor vehicle theft c. burglary d.



Unit 3 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Which of the following is not one of the main ways residential burglars generally select their 22. targets?

they receive information from a tipstera. they observe a potential targetb. they have some knowledge of the occupantsc. they make a spur of the moment selection d.

One of the best ways to address both shoplifting and employee theft is through ______. 23.

security personnela. increasingly severe penaltiesb. technologyc. warning notices d.

The 1998 Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act ______. 24.

mandated the imposition of restitution when sentencing offenders convicted of identity a. theft criminalized identity theftb. increased prison sentences for criminals convicted of various types of identity theftc. made identity theft a federal crime d.

Young children under the age of seven generally start fires ______. 25.

for personal motivesa. accidentallyb. for revengec. due to underlying psychosocial conflictsd.



Unit 4 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

Martha Stewart was implicated in the insider trading scandal involving ______. 1.

ImClonea. Arthur Andersonb. Enronc. WorldCom, Inc d.

Which of the following is an example of corporate fraud? 2.

Ponzi schemesa. insider tradingb. advance-fee fraudc. equity skimming d.

________ fraud is any fraud connected with communications media. 3.

Mass-marketinga. Corporateb. Mortgagec. Environmental d.

Which of the following is an example of environmental crime? 4.

the nationwide savings and loan disaster in the 1980s involving personal appropriation of a. funds by institutional executives the cover-up of research findings about asbestos-caused diseases by several of the largest b. asbestos producers in the United States the dumping of 11 million gallons of crude oil off the coast of Alaska by Exxon’s Valdez c. supertanker the class action suit against makers and sellers of silicone gel breast implants d.

According to John Braithwaite, the central explanatory variable in all criminal activity, 5. including white-collar crime, is ______.

social classa. learningb. self-controlc. inequality d.



Unit 4 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

________ acted as a quasi-police organization in the Italian ghetto areas of American cities 6. during the industrial era.

La Mano Negroa. The Mafiab. The Black Handc. None of the above. d.

The expansion of organized crime and their focus on official corruption was due to which 7. event?

The Great Depressiona. World War IIb. Prohibitionc. World War I d.

The first federal legislation aimed specifically at curtailing organized crime activities was the 8. ________ Act.

Hobbsa. BCCIb. Organized Crime Controlc. RICO d.

Legalizing or decriminalizing illegal drugs falls into which of Howard Abadinsky’s approaches 9. to controlling organized crime?

decreasing opportunity for organized criminal activitya. reducing the economic lure of involvementb. increasing the risk of involvement in organized crimec. increasing law enforcement authority d.

During the late nineteenth century, which of the following people would have been most likely 10. to be abusing drugs (other than opium)?

a servanta. an upper-class merchantb. an artistc. a factory worker d.



Unit 4 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

The most commonly used illicit drug is ______. 11.

marijuanaa. cocaineb. heroinc. inhalants d.

Which of the following would be considered an indirect cost of illegal drug use in the U.S.? 12.

the cost of enforcing drug lawsa. the cost of incarcerating drug offendersb. the cost to the criminal justice system of investigating drug-related crimesc. the cost of medical care for injuries from drug-related child abuse d.

Which of the following is a drug-related crime? 13.

snatching a purse to get money to buy drugsa. using crack cocaineb. selling marijuana to juveniles outside a middle schoolc. buying drugs on the street from a low-level dealer d.

The ________ Act required the complete removal of heroin from all medicines. 14.

Narcotic Controla. Boggsb. Harrisonc. Pure Food and Drug d.

Which of the following is an example of the legalization of prostitution? 15.

a state’s laws are changed to permit adult women to offer paid sexual services without a. criminal penalty a state’s laws are changed to reduce the criminal penalty for prostitution and to require b. prostitutes to participate in counseling a state’s laws are changed to reduce the penalty for prostitution from a term in jail to a c. small fine a state’s laws are changed to reduce the criminal penalty for prostitution and to provide d. alternative employment programs for women involved in prostitution



Unit 4 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Planting a virus is an example of which category of cybercrime? 16.

computer-manipulation crimea. telecommunications crimesb. internal cybercrimec. support of criminal enterprises d.

Malware involves ______. 17.

software piracya. phone phreakingb. computer virusesc. embezzlement d.

Which of the following best describes the average hacker? 18.

a 20-year-old man living in San Franciscoa. a 40-year-old man living in New Yorkb. a 23-year-old woman living in Chicagoc. a 35-year-old man living in Paris d.

According to the 1994 federal DNA Identification Act, the FBI is authorized to establish DNA 19. indexes for all but which of the following categories?

offenders convicted of crimesa. samples recovered from unidentified human remainsb. samples recovered from crime scenesc. offenders charged with crimes d.

The first national police force to begin routine collection of DNA samples from anyone involved 20. in a serious crime is located in which country?

Francea. Chinab. Great Britainc. Germany d.

A(n) ________ criminologist is involved in the cross-national study of crime. 21.

comparativea. biosocialb. classicalc. ethnocentricd.



Unit 4 Examination


GED 260 Criminology

Trafficking in persons is often undertaken ______. 22.

to reunite familiesa. to help people escape repressive government regimes b. for purposes of sexual or labor exploitationc. All of the above. d.

An act of terrorism is distinguished from a violent criminal act by ______. 23.

the type of behavior involveda. the motivation of the offenderb. the location of the actc. all of the above d.

Which of the following federal agencies is not part of the Department of Homeland Security? 24.

The Transportation Security Administrationa. The Federal Bureau of Investigationb. The U.S. Secret Servicec. The Federal Emergency Management Agency d.

Which of the following is not a trend in modern terrorism? 25.

an increase in cross-national links among terrorist organizationsa. a trend toward religiously motivated terrorismb. a trend toward the involvement of terrorist organizations in non-terrorist motivated criminal c. activity a trend toward loosely organized international networksd.