1) Which of the following is not one of the ideas contributed to the criminological literature by labeling theory?

A) Deviant individuals achieve their status by virtue of social definition.

B) Deviance is the consequence of a quality inherent in human activity .

C) Labeling by society tends to perpetuate crime.

D) Negative self-images follow from processing by the formal criminal justice system.


2) The dramaturgical perspective was developed by

A) Ronald Akers.

B) Edwin Lemert.

C) Erving Goffman.

D) Howard Becker.


3) Elder’s principle of __________ refers to the fact that the developmental impact of a succession of life transitions is contingent on when in a person’s life they occur.

A) historical time and place

B) linked lives

C) timing in lives

D) human agency


4) According to Moffit, a __________ results when adolescents begin to desire autonomy but are prevented from achieving it because of preexisting social expectations.

A) moral enterprise

B) social bond

C) maturity gap

D) control ratio


5) Lawrence E. Cohen and Richard Machelek pioneered the __________ theory.

A) delinquent development

B) evolutionary ecology

C) age-graded

D) dual taxonomic


6) Terence Thornberry developed __________ theory.

A) delinquent development

B) age-graded

C) dual taxonomic

D) interactional


7) Which of the following is not one of the preliminary results of the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program?

A) Serious involvement in drugs is related to serious involvement in delinquency.

B) A lack of commitment to school is associated with higher involvement in delinquency.

C) Delinquency is related to individual risk factors such as impulsivity.

D) Being on welfare is associated with a fairly low risk of delinquency.


8) According to the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program research, very young subjects (as young as three years of age) are most likely to be found on the __________ pathway to delinquency.

A) overt

B) multiple disruption

C) covert

D) authority conflict


9) PHDCN is using a(n) __________ research design to study the development of criminal behavior.

A) longitudinal

B) participant observation

C) experimental

D) quasi-experimental


10) The __________ perspective holds that conflict is a fundamental aspect of social life that can never be fully resolved.

A) conflict

B) radical

C) pluralistic

D) consensus


11) In 1905, __________ described the struggle between the haves and the have-

nots as a natural consequence of a capitalist society.

A) Willem Bonger

B) William Chambliss

C) George Vold

D) Richard Quinney


12) The 1958 book Theoretical Criminology was written by

A) George Vold.

B) Richard Quinney.

C) Austin Turk.

D) Karl Marx.


13) According to Chambliss and Seidman, the __________ a group’s political or economic position, the __________ the probability that it’s views will be reflected in laws.

A) lower; greater

B) higher; less

C) higher; greater

D) lower; less


14) __________ feminism sees men as controlling women through sexuality and sees society as patriarchal.

A) Alternative (women of color)

B) Socialist

C) Liberal

D) Radical


15) __________ criminology suggests that social control agencies and citizens should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus reduce crime.

A) Anarchic

B) Peacemaking

C) Constitutive

D) Semiotic


16) According to Fox and Levin, the __________ serial killer commits murder to mask other crimes, such as robbery.

A) dominance

B) visionary

C) reformist

D) protection-oriented


17) Which of the following is not a rape myth?

A) Women say no when they really mean yes

B) Women bring false rape charges to get even with men

C) Women are asking for it by wearing provocative clothing

D) They are all current rape myths.


18) According to Baron and Straus, which of the following is not directly linked to

increased rates of rape?

A) Higher rates of pornography

B) High levels of gender inequality

C) High rates of legitimate violence

D) High rates of violent crime


19) According to Dennis Stevens, __________ rapists select victims based on the most available target.

A) lust

B) fantasy

C) righteous

D) peer


20) Which of the following is not one of the three strategies drug robbers use to

minimize the risk of retaliation inherent in targeting drug dealers?

A) Hypervigilance

B) Intimidation

C) Selective disinhibition

D) Anonymity maintenance


21) The term “cafeteria-style offending” was first used by

A) Mark S. Fleisher.

B) Edwin H. Sutherland.

C) Neil Shover.

D) Malcolm Klein.


22)__________ is defined as “the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another.”

A) Arson

B) Robbery

C) Burglary

D) Larceny theft






23) At the time their cars were stolen, what activity are victims most likely to be engaged in?

A) Eating dinner

B) Working a their jobs

C) Sleeping

D) Attending a party


24) When considering theft from motor vehicles, the most frequently stolen items are

A) cameras.

B) external vehicle parts.

C) stereo equipment.

D) cellular phones.


25) The infirm category of McShane and Noonan’s typology of shoplifters was most likely to contain which of the following persons?

A) A young male

B) An elderly female

C) A middle-aged female

D) A middle-aged male


1) Early definitions of white-collar crime focused on the

A) the work environment.

B) nature of the crime.

C) the violator involved.

D) All of the above


2) According to Braithwaite, the central explanatory variable in all criminal activity is

A) self-control.

B) learning.

C) inequality.

D) social class.


3) Which of the following is not an example of a structural reform to address white-collar crime?

A) Changing the process by which corporations are chartered to include control

over white collar crime

B) Increasing the funding for enforcement agencies that deal with white-collar


C) Adding members of the public to corporate boards of directors

D) Enhancing the flow of information among businesses, the public, and administrative bodies


4) Prohibition was repealed by passage of the __________ Amendment to the

U.S. Constitution.

A) Twenty-first

B) Eighteenth

C) Twenty-fourth

D) Tenth




5) The St. Valentine’s Day massacre established Al Capone as the undisputed ruler of organized crime in

A) Boston.

B) New York.

C) the United States.

D) Chicago.


6) In 1951, the Senate-sponsored __________ Committee reported the existence of a nationwide crime syndicate operating in many large American cities.

A) Wickersham

B) Kerner

C) Hobbs

D) Kefauver


7) Of the 24 crime families of Sicilian-American heritage that operate in the U.S. today, __________ operate out of New York.

A) five

B) seven

C) ten

D) three


8) The strict unwritten code of conduct of organized crime, which demands silence and loyalty, is known as the


B) Cosa Nostra.

C) tong.

D) omerta.


9) The single most important piece of federal legislation that specifically targets organized crime activities is

A) the Hobbs Act

B) Omerta.

C) the United States Code.



10) __________ is a relatively mild, nonaddictive drug with limited hallucinogenic properties.

A) Librium

B) Marijuana

C) Opium



11) __________ are sometimes known as “gateway drugs” because they often initiate young people into illicit drug use.

A) Hallucinogens

B) Inhalants

C) Marijuana and other forms of cannabis

D) Designer drugs





12) The __________ placed the distribution of a number of essential chemicals used in the production of illicit drugs under federal control.

A) Anti-Drug Abuse Act

B) Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act

C) Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act

D) Harrison Act


13) The majority of the cocaine entering the United States is smuggled in using

A) private airplanes.

B) commercial airplanes.

C) maritime vessels.

D) overland transportation.


14) Which of the following countries is not located in the Golden Triangle area?

A) Thailand

B) Burma

C) Laos

D) Turkey


15) The sale of heroin to anyone under age 18 was made a capital offense by the __________ Act.

A) Harrison

B) Boggs

C) Controlled Substances

D) Narcotic Control


16) __________ involves purchasing one licensed copy of a piece of software and loading it onto multiple computers.

A) Internet piracy

B) Renting

C) Softlifting

D) Hard disk loading


17) __________ involves using official-looking e-mail messages to steal valuable information.

A) Cloning

B) Phishing

C) Softlifting

D) Phreaking


18) The __________ Act is part of the 2002 Homeland Security Act.

A) No Electronic Theft

B) Communications Decency

C) Cyber Security Enhancement

D) Computer Fraud and Abuse


19) __________ attempt to duplicate the decision-making processes used by skilled investigators in evidence analysis.

A) Expert systems

B) Audit trails


D) DNA systems

20) The Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate operates within the

A) Department of Homeland Security.

B) Federal Bureau of Investigation.

C) National Infrastructure Protection Center.

D) Department of Justice.


21) Which of the following is an element of human smuggling?

A) The person being smuggled does not have to cross an international border.

B) The person being smuggled is generally cooperating.

C) The person being smuggled is coerced.

D) The person being smuggled is exploited or forced to perform some type of



22) GovNet is

A) the United States’ primary infrastructure.

B) a new form of cyberterrorism.

C) a private government network with no connectivity with commercial or public


D) none of the above.


23) According to the CIA, the end goal of al-Qaeda is

A) to commit bioterrorism.

B) to use LME on American aircraft.

C) to use WMDs.

D) to commit domestic terrorism.


24) Which of the following is not one of the five directorates of the Department of Homeland Security?

A) Office of Private Sector Liaison

B) Science and Technology

C) Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection

D) Border and Transportation Security


25) The most active state sponsor of terrorism in the world is

A) Iran.

B) North Korea.

C) Cuba.

D) Iraq.