Engineering survey represents the survey which is done before, during and after engineering works. Engineering survey has three distinct stages; conceptual stage, construction stage and post-construction stage.
This is a survey process where information on designs of works is transferred to the ground for purposes of construction of engineering works.
Elements of Setting Out
Aims of Setting Out
Stages in Setting Out
There are two main stages:
Four Basic Control Points Used in Engineering Survey
Ways of Setting Out Detail Point
Example: Given two primary control points A (1000mE, 2000mN), b (986.72mE, 1897.46mN), calculate the data for setting out coordinates of a point S (1025.00mE, 1950.00mN).
Ways of Referencing and Setting Out Design Points
Vertical controls are used in geomatic engineering works to plan position, determine height and elevation of points, to assess the depth of excavation as well as for leveling works.
Consider a proposed sewer line which is 60m long to be constructed from manhole A to B. The invert level for manhole A is 30.02m. The gradient from A to B is 1:100 falling from A to B. The ground level at A is 32.90m. If the height of the traveler is set at 3.75, determine:
A section of a sewer is to be laid between A and B 100 m apart. Sight rails have been established as shown below. If the sewer is to be constructed using a travelling rod of 3.25m, determine the invert level at the manholes and the gradient of the sewer lines as designed.
|1.480||50||BM RL 48.290m|
|0.855||75||Sight rail at MHA|
|2.105||40||Sight rail at MHB|
|1.480||50||BM RL 48.290|
Determine the invert level of A and B.
A sewer is to be constructed between 2 points P and Q 80m apart. Levels were taken to establish the longitudinal profile as provided in the table below. The invert level at P is to be 120.750m above datum and the sewer is to fall towards Q at a gradient of 1:120. The length of the traveler is 3 meters.
|2.925||0||BM RL 124.82m|
|2.697||20||Ground level at P|
|3.020||80||Ground level at Q|
At the setting out stage, the level was set up close to its previous position and a back sight of 0.587 was recorded on a staff held on the benchmark. Determine:
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