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Water Treatment by Hydrodynamic Cavitation and Ultraviolet Radiation

2015-2016 Mechanical/Civil Undergraduate Senior Design

 

 

 

 

Water Treatment by Hydrodynamic Cavitation and Ultraviolet Radiation

 

 

 

Submitted by

 

Christopher Bitikofer

Sarah Ridha

Brandyn Krieger

Terran Engle

 

 

Project Mentor

 

Chikashi Sato, Ph.D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………………..1

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………..2

List of illustrations/figures

Gantt Chart…………………………………………………………………………………9

P&ID……………………………………………………………………………………….6

Management Responsibilities..………………………………………………………………7

Engineering Specifications ………………………………………………………………….5

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………3

Discussion Section………………………………………………………………………………….4

Objectives……………………………………………………………………….…………4

Technical Information………………………………………………………………….……5

Schedule ……………………………………………………………………….………….9

Management Section………………………….………………………………………….…………7

Appendices……………………………………………………………………………….……….8

Capability Statements………………………….………………………………….…………8

Gantt Chart…………………………………………………………………….………….9

References……….………………………………………………………………………..10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Access to clean drinking water in underdeveloped areas of the world is a growing problem due to global increases in both population and pollution. Current methods of water treatment are impractical to apply in many parts of the world, as these technologies are expensive, require large facilities staffed by a litany of professionals, and the production/disposal of treatment chemicals that often have negative environmental impacts. The need to develop a method of water treatment that is less expensive, operates without the use of chemical treatments, and has relatively low electrical power usage is of profound importance.

Cavitation occurs when the static pressure of water drops below vapor pressure. Small microbubbles form and slowly collapse in an energetic manner. As cavitation bubbles collapse, temperatures within the bubble can reach upwards of 5000k. Due to pyrolytic decomposition that takes place within the collapsing bubbles, the OH radical and shock waves can be generated at the gas–liquid interface (A. Agarwal et al, 2011). These radicals degrade contaminants suspended within the water that would otherwise resist ultraviolet degradation. This makes cavitation a promising method of water treatment.

Ultra violet light is capable of killing bacteria and living contaminants in water. Short wavelength UV light, in the range of 10 nm to 400 nm, kills cells by interacting with their structures and disrupting DNA (NIOSH, 2008). UV light is capable of killing up to 99.99% of bacteria in clear water. This system of water purification is both cost effective and chemical free but it cannot break down particle contaminants that bacteria tend to live in. However in combination with a particle filtration system, or in our case a cavitation system, UV reactors are simple to maintain, cost effective and chemical free.

The concise purpose of this team’s senior design project will be for develop a fluid flow test apparatus to demonstrate the degree of effectiveness of the combination of UV radiation and hydrodynamic cavitation. In addition, this team will make an array of improvements to last year’s design in order to improve ease of use, overall functionality, and the accuracy and scientific value of collected data.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion Section

In order to develop an efficient, inexpensive, and portable water purification system, the WTHC team built on the research and design work of last year’s hydrodynamic cavitation senior design team. Last year, the HC team ran numerous tests to determine how effectively hydrodynamic cavitation can purify water. They found the most effective cavitation device to be a simple Venturi Tube operating under controlled temperature and pressure. Our objective was to expand on this work in the following ways:

1. Development of a UV reactor purification system that can maintain an operating temperature between 15 and 20 degrees Celsius using a heat exchanger cooling jacket.

2. Integration of this UV reactor into the hydrocavitation system in such a way that the new system is able to:

a. run only the cavitation system.

b. run only the UV system.

c. run cavitation and then the UV system in series.

d. run the UV and then the cavitation system in series.

3. Develop a data collection system that will electronically record temperature, pressure, and flow rate periodically throughout a test run of the system. The system needs to record this data automatically with a high degree of accuracy.

4. The completed system must be portable. It needs to fit in suitcase when disassembled.

5. The system must be modular to enable future modification and easy assembly/disassembly.

 

 

 

 

Our detailed engineering specifications are summarized in the following table:WTHC_Engineering_Specifications_R1.jpg

(Table 1, Engineering Specifications)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Our System P&ID is shown below

(Figure 1, placeholder P&ID)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Management Section

(Table 2, Management Responsibilities)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendices

Capability Statements

Christopher Bitikofer will be in charge of P&ID drafting and CAD modeling for this project. Christopher is a Senior Engineering student in ISU’s Mechanical Engineering Program. Christopher has significant experience modeling using SolidWorks making him well suited to model and draft P&ID’s for this team’s flow loop test apparatus. Christopher has taken relevant courses including Fluid Mechanics, Compressible Fluid Flow, Solid Modeling, Mechanical Vibrations Analysis, Control System’s Design, Mechanical Systems Measurement Lab and Thermal Fluids Lab.

Brandyn Krieger is responsible for budgeting, part/material analysis, and selection. He is a senior at ISU majoring in Mechanical Engineering. Courses applicable to this project include: Compressible Fluids, Fluid Mechanics, Control Systems, Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics, Engineering Economics, and Mechanics of Materials. Brandyn also has an extensive background in construction including, but not limited to, residential plumbing. This brings a knowledge of types and materials of pipe, joints/couplers, valves, and other plumbing related components.

Terran Engle is a senior in mechanical engineering at Idaho State University. He will be in charge of data collection, UV reactor design, schedule management, and team communication. Terran has taken Measurement Systems Lab, and is currently taking Thermal Fluids Lab. The skills Terran acquired in these labs are applied in designing the data collection portion of the project. Terran has also taken Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, Vibration Analysis, Control Systems, various math classes, and various machine design classes. His work experience includes an internship at ON Semiconductor where he worked on a database management project and an internship at Feuerborn Associates Engineering where he worked on various projects performing a variety of functions including gantt chart development, CAD modeling, design, and analysis. He applied this knowledge to the UV reactor design, and to the development of the schedule.

Sarah Ridha is a Senior Civil Engineering student at Idaho State University. Sarah will be in charge of Environmental Analysis and some Fluid and Hydraulic Design. Sarah has taken some pertinent courses including Mechanics of Materials , Dynamics , Fluid Mechanics, Chemistry, Water and Water Waste Quality , Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Hydraulic Design.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gantt Chart

Gantt Chart 10-23-2015.jpg

References

Agarwal Ashutosh, Ng Jern Wun, and Liu Yu, 2011, Principle and Applications of Microbubble and Nanobubble Technology for Water Treatment, Chemosphere v. 84 p. 1175–1180

 

“Word of the Month: Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI)” (PDF). NIOSH eNews 5 (12). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health . April 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2015.

Christopher Bitikofer, Sarah Ridha, Brandyn Krieger, and Terran Engle

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