GED260 Criminology – Final Exam

Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction


1) In a __________ state, an individual may be prosecuted for violating traditional notions of right and wrong, even though no violation of written law occurred.

A) criminalized

B) statutory law

C) common law

D) none of the above


2) According to John F. Galliher, legal defi nitions of criminality are arrived at through a __________ process.

A) political

B) psychological

C) mainstream

D) sociological


3) The belief that crime is the result of criteria that have been built into the law by powerful groups is the basis of the __________ perspective on crime.

A) psychological

B) sociological

C) political

D) legal






4) The pluralistic perspective suggests that behaviors are typically criminalized through

A) general agreement of members of society.

B) a political process.

C) the existence of shared norms and values.

D) none of the above


5) A police offi cer or probation offi cer is best described as a

A) criminal justice professional.

B) criminalist.

C) criminologist.

D) none of the above

Multiple Choice Questions


6) The number of personnel employed by private security agencies today is

__________ that of public law enforcement agencies.

A) twice

B) equal to

C) four times

D) half




7) Criminology is

A) a collection of theories.

B) a profession.

C) a fi eld of study.

D) all of the above




8) A(n) __________ theory of crime is one that attempts to explain all or most

forms of criminal conduct through a single, overarching approach.

A) unicausal

B) complete

C) general

D) integrated


9) The social responsibility perspective is affiliated with __________ theory.

A) culture confl ict

B) routine activities

C) social learning

D) rational choice






10) The __________ contributes to the criminal event by failing to prevent criminal


A) general public

B) criminal justice system

C) victim

D) offender


11) If you needed offi cial police statistics on crime in Texas, you would use

A) a self-report study.

B) the NCVS.

C) the UCR.

D) none of the above




12) The most common motivation for hate crimes is

A) religious bias.

B) bias based on ethnicity/national origin.

C) bias based on sexual orientation.

D) racial bias.






13) Which of the following was not a possible cause of the decrease in reported

crime since the mid-1990s?

A) New strict laws, an expanded justice system, and an increase in police funding

B) Economic expansion

C) Social upheaval

D) Changes in crime-fighting technologies


14) Drunk driving is an example of

A) felony homicide.

B) fi rst-degree murder.

C) negligent homicide.

D) second-degree murder.


15) According to the NCVS, which of the following individuals is most likely to be

a robbery victim?

A) A 25-year-old man

B) A 12-year-old boy

C) A 65-year-old woman

D) A 14-year-old girl


16) UCR data on Part II offenses includes

A) information on crimes reported to the police.

B) information on arrests made by the police.

C) information on the dark fi gure of crime.

D) none of the above


17) Which of the following is not a finding of the National Youth Survey?

A) Violent offenders begin lives of crime earlier than originally believed.

B) There is a consistent progression from less serious to more serious acts of

delinquency over time.

C) Females are involved in a smaller proportion of crime than previously thought.

D) Race differentials in crime are smaller than traditional data sources indicated.


18) One of the two most common reasons for not reporting violent crime is that

the victim

A) fears future victimization by the same offender.

B) considers the crime to be a private matter.

C) believes the police will be ineffective in solving the crime.

D) is embarrassed over the type of victimization.


19) Which of the following individuals is least likely to be a victim of personal

theft, according to the NCVS?

A) A white female over the age of 65

B) A black female over the age of 65

C) A white male over the age of 65

D) A black male over the age of 65





20) The findings that led criminologists to question the existence of a relationship

between social class and crime came from

A) the UCR.

B) the NCVS.


D) self-report studies.


21) Which of the following is not one of Kenneth R. Hoover’s four uses of theory

in social scientifi c thinking?

A) Theories can be improved through hypothesis testing.

B) Theories link studies together.

C) Theories allow us to interpret the larger meaning of our fi ndings for ourselves

and others.

D) Theories provide patterns for the interpretation of data.


22) Confounding effects are

A) a method of increasing internal validity.

B) experimental interventions that cause behavioral changes.

C) a method of increasing external validity.

D) explanations that rival the explanatory power of the hypothesis under study.






23) A differential loss of respondents from comparison groups in a research study

may result in

A) experimental mortality.

B) self-selection.

C) maturation.

D) differential selection.


24) Which of the following threats to internal validity would fall under the problem

of experimental mortality?

A) During a study involving interviews of inmates by students, a number of the

student interviewers graduate and are replaced by new student interviewers.

B) Subjects become fatigued during the study and their response time is affected.

C) During a study comparing two groups of inmates, many of the members from one of the study groups are approved for parole.

D) A new prison warden arrives during the implementation of a study on violence

in a prison.










25) Which of the following factors may threaten the external validity of a research


A) Instrumentation

B) History

C) Statistical regression

D) Self-selection


26) __________ is the process by which individuals are assigned to study groups

without biases or differences resulting from selection.

A) Randomization

B) Operationalization

C) Intersubjectivity

D) Net effects


27) Inferential statistics involves

A) highlighting the relationships within the data.

B) describing data.

C) summarizing data.

D) generalizing fi ndings obtained from data.


28) The degree of dispersion of scores around the mean is known as the

A) median.

B) correlation.

C) standard deviation.

D) signifi cance test.


29) In a research report, the __________ is a brief summation of the report’s findings.

A) review of existing literature

B) analysis

C) preface

D) abstract


30) Which of the following is not one of the basic assumptions or principles of

the Classical School?

A) Punishment is sometimes required to deter law violators.

B) Root principles of right and wrong are inherent in the nature of things.

C) Most human behavior results from forces that are beyond the control of the


D) Human beings are fundamentally rational.


31) An individual who dresses in an unusual way is most likely to be violating a

__________ of his or her social group.

A) folkway

B) more

C) law

D) none of the above





32) Which of the following was not one of the legal documents contained in the

Justinian Code?

A) The Code

B) The Summary

C) The Digest

D) The Institutes




33) In which year was the Magna Carta signed?

A) 1066

B) 450 B.C.

C) 1215

D) 1700 B.C.


34) Which of the following works was written by John Locke?

A) Essay Concerning Human Understanding

B) The Spirit of Laws

C) Leviathan

D) The Rights of Man


35) John Locke’s concept of checks and balances between divisions of government

was elaborated on by

A) Montesquieu.

B) Rousseau.

C) Spinoza.

D) Hobbes.


36) According to Beccaria, criminals should be punished based on

A) the level of revenge desired by society.

B) the degree of injury they caused.

C) an assessment of their criminal intent.

D) None of the above


37) __________ seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat


A) Recidivism

B) General deterrence

C) Specifi c deterrence

D) Retribution


38) __________ controls crime by imprisoning specific individuals.

A) Truth in sentencing

B) Selective incapacitation

C) Determinate sentencing

D) Collective incapacitation





39) __________ developed the theory of phrenology.

A) Johann Gaspar Spurzheim

B) Konrad Lorenz

C) Franz Joseph Gall

D) Cesare Lombroso


40) The Female Offender was written by

A) Charles Goring.

B) William Sheldon.

C) Cesare Lombroso.

D) Ernest Hooton.


41) Crime and the Man was written by

A) Stephen Schafer.

B) Earnest Hooton.

C) William Sheldon.

D) Charles Goring.


42) Which of the following methods of dealing with criminals was favored by

Earnest Hooton?

A) Community service

B) Banishment

C) Imprisonment

D) Rehabilitation programs





43) Which of the following was not one of Stephen Schafer’s criticisms of Hooton’s


A) He did not provide convincing evidence that the criminal’s inferiority was


B) His criminal population was not a representative sample.

C) He failed to show evidence that rehabilitation could have a signifi cant impact

on offenders.

D) He failed to recognize that members of his control group might have been

involved in crime.



44) James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein wrote

A) Creating Born Criminals.

B) Sisters in Crime.

C) Crime and Human Nature.

D) Sociobiology.


45) The book The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature was written


A) James Q. Wilson.

B) Steven Pinker.

C) Edward O. Wilson.

D) C. Ray Jeffery.



46) Which of the following was not one of C. Ray Jeffery’s elements for a comprehensive biologically based crime prevention program?

A) The use of biologically-based punishments such as castration for rape and

child sexual molestation.

B) Conducting biological research in prisons and treatment facilities to help

identify the root causes of aggression and violence.

C) Monitoring children through early development to identify early symptoms of

behavioral disorder.

D) Neurological examinations when necessary.



47) Which of the following is not a form of psychopathology?

A) Schizophrenia

B) Alcoholism

C) Depression

D) All of the above are forms of psychopathology.


48) According to Cleckley, one characteristic of the psychopathic personality is

A) an inability to feel guilt or shame.

B) delusions or hallucinations.

C) an ability to learn from experience.

D) a distinct life plan.


49) Crime and Personality was written by

A) Albert Bandura.

B) Hervey Cleckley.

C) Ivan Pavlov.

D) Hans Eysenck.


50) According to Freud, the __________ develops into a moral guide to right and


A) ego

B) id

C) superego

D) unconscious


51) Which of the following is not a characteristic of a psychotic individual?

A) Compulsive and obsessive behavior

B) Moods and mood swings

C) A marked inefficiency in getting along with others and caring for oneself

D) A grossly distorted conception of reality








52) Which of the following is not one the three laws in Gabriel Tarde’s theory of

human behavior?

A) Individuals in close intimate contact with one another tend to imitate each

other’s behavior.

B) New acts and behaviors tend to reinforce or replace others.

C) Imitation moves from the top down.

D) Suggestibility is a key cause of criminal behavior.


53) Under federal law, a criminal defendant found not guilty by reason of insanity

must have a psychological or psychiatric examination and a hearing held within __________ days after the not guilty verdict.

A) 20

B) 80

C) 10

D) 40




54) __________ studied Polish immigrants in American cities and suggested the

increased crime rates among these people was due to social disorganization.

A) W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki

B) Robert Park and Ernest Burgess

C) Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld

D) Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay


55) The social pathology model was used by early social __________ theorists.

A) development

B) confl ict

C) process

D) ecology



56) Early ecological theories of crime were collectively referred to as the

__________ School of Criminology.

A) Positivist

B) Classical

C) New York

D) Chicago


57) Which of the following is not one of the approaches upon which environmental

criminology builds?

A) Strain theory

B) Situational crime prevention

C) Ecological approaches

D) Routine activities theory







58) The average age for joining a gang today is approximately __________ years of


A) 17

B) 13

C) 11

D) 15


59) Which of the following was not part of Mobilization for Youth?

A) Voter registration

B) Boycotts against schools

C) Welfare-to-work programs

D) Rent strikes against slum landlords


60) Social control theories focus on

A) the process through which social integration develops.

B) physical features of the social environment.

C) static aspects of the personality.

D) causative factors in criminal behavior.








61) In the case of sickness, the failure of the public health system or the unavailability

of preventive medicine would be an example of a(n) __________ containment

or control mechanism.

A) personal

B) external

C) outer

D) inner


62) The aspect of the social bond which sets social bond theory apart from subcultural

approaches is

A) commitment.

B) belief.

C) involvement.

D) attachment.


63) __________ focuses on early childhood risk factors for gang involvement.

A) The Montreal Preventive Treatment Program



D) OJJDP’s Comprehensive Strategy Program






64) Which of the following is not an example of desistance?

A) Deceleration

B) Deescalation

C) Specialization

D) Diversion


65) The primary goal of the __________ program is to provide a positive alternative

to gangs for at-risk youth.

A) Comprehensive Strategy

B) Targeted Outreach





66) Which of the following is not one of the principles characterizing the

consensus perspective?

A) A belief that law violators are representative of society as a whole

B) A belief in the existence of core values

C) The assumption that the law serves all people equally

D) The idea that laws reflect the collective will of society






67) In 1905, __________ described the struggle between the haves and

the have-nots as a natural consequence of a capitalist society.

A) William Chambliss

B) George Vold

C) Richard Quinney

D) Willem Bonger


68) According to the conflict perspective, the fundamental nature of group

conflict centers on

A) the accumulation of wealth.

B) the exercise of political power.

C) socially signifi cant differences.

D) None of the above



69) According to __________, a spokesperson for modern radical thinkers,

criminal behavior results from the coercive power of the state to enforce

the will of the ruling class.

A) Harold Pepinsky

B) Richard Quinney

C) William Chambliss

D) Ralf Dahrendorf


70) __________ is a major source of left realist writings in England.

A) Jock Young

B) Walter DeKeseredy

C) Dragan Milovanovic

D) John Hagan


71) Power-control theory was developed by

A) John Hagan.

B) Rita J. Simon.

C) Kathleen Daly.

D) Harold Pepinsky.






72) The primary theoretical perspective used to explain the fact that victims and

offenders who are intimately known to each other are disproportionately represented

in homicide statistics is

A) selective disinhibition.

B) the critical criminological perspective.

C) the subculture of violence thesis.

D) the general theory of crime.


73) Which of the following is not a thrill motivated serial killer?

A) A dominance killer

B) A sexual sadist

C) A protection oriented killer

D) They are all types of thrill motivated serial killers.


74) Which of the following is not a rape myth?

A) Women are asking for it by wearing provocative clothing

B) Women bring false rape charges to get even with men

C) Women say no when they really mean yes

D) They are all current rape myths.







75) The first state to redefine “rape” to include a broader range of behaviors,

circumstances, and victims was

A) Michigan.

B) Texas.

C) New York.

D) California.






76) Same sex rape is most common

A) in correctional institutions.

B) among strangers.

C) on college campuses.

D) all of the above


77) __________ is defi ned as “the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding

away of property from the possession of another.”

A) Burglary

B) Robbery

C) Arson

D) Larceny


78) According to research on theft on college campuses, the individual most

likely to be victimized is

A) a staff member.

B) a student.

C) a faculty member.

D) They are all equally likely to be victimized.


79) When considering theft from motor vehicles, the most frequently stolen items


A) cameras.

B) external vehicle parts.

C) cellular phones.

D) stereo equipment.






80) According to McShane and Noonan, the primary similarity between the reactionary

and rebel types of shoplifters is

A) both are more likely to be older.

B) both have the economic ability to pay for the stolen goods.

C) both have signifi cant prior histories of offending.

D) both are of the same gender.


81) A fence commits the crime of

A) receiving stolen property.

B) motor vehicle theft.

C) burglary.

D) robbery.


82) Early definitions of white-collar crime focused on the

A) the violator involved.

B) nature of the crime.

C) the work environment.

D) All of the above




83) A(n) __________ crime is any act punishable by law that is committed

through opportunity created in the course of a legal occupation.

A) blue-collar

B) corporate

C) occupational

D) white-collar


84) The idea that white-collar crime may be motivated by a disparity between

corporate goals and legitimate means was proposed by

A) John Braithwaite.

B) Gary Green and Gilbert Geis.

C) Edwin Sutherland.

D) Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson.


85) Russian organized criminal groups currently operate in __________ states in

the United States.

A) 17

B) 10

C) 15

D) 14




86) According to Gary Potter, the __________ aspects of organized crime offer the

most useful data for formulating future policy.

A) criminal

B) social

C) organized

D) political






87) The League of Spiritual Discovery emphasized the use of

A) cocaine.

B) opium.

C) tranquilizers.



88) Which of the following drugs is not a stimulant?

A) Crack

B) Heroin

C) Amphetamines

D) Cocaine


89) The __________ placed the distribution of a number of essential chemicals

used in the production of illicit drugs under federal control.

A) Chemical Diversion and Traffi cking Act

B) Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act

C) Anti-Drug Abuse Act

D) Harrison Act


90) The majority of the cocaine entering the United States is smuggled in using

A) maritime vessels.

B) commercial airplanes.

C) private airplanes.

D) overland transportation.


91) The Mollen Commission found that the severity of police corruption in New

York City had __________ since previous investigations.

A) increased signifi cantly

B) decreased slightly

C) increased slightly

D) decreased signifi cantly


92) According to David Carter’s classifi cation scheme, techno-vandalism would

fall into which type of computer crime?

A) Crimes in which computers serve as targets

B) Crimes in which the computer is incidental to other crimes

C) Crimes in which computers serve as the instrumentality of the crime

D) Crimes associated with the prevalence of computers


93) The __________ Act made it illegal to use interstate telephone lines in furtherance

of telemarketing fraud.

A) No Electronic Theft

B) Communications Decency

C) Computer Abuse Amendments

D) Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement






94) Which of the following best describes the average hacker?

A) A 20-year-old male living in San Francisco.

B) A 35-year-old male living in New York.

C) A 25-year-old male living in Paris.

D) A 23-year-old female living in Chicago.


95) The primary motivation of the average hacker is

A) to profit financially by hacking.

B) to create a computer security system.

C) to gain access to computer networks.

D) to demonstrate network vulnerability.


96) __________ involves a complete and thorough assessment of the kinds of

perils facing an organization.

A) Expert systems analysis

B) Threat analysis

C) DNA profiling

D) Audit trail analysis


97) __________ is a process of social homogenization by which the experiences of

everyday life can foster a standardization of cultural expression around the


A) comparative criminology

B) Globalization

C) Ethnocentrism

D) Terrorism



98) Which of the following statements about terrorism is true?

A) Terrorism is aimed at military targets or combat-ready troops.

B) Terrorism is politically motivated.

C) Terrorism is usually an impulsive act of rage.

D) Terrorism is perpetrated for criminal gain.


99) The Bremmer Commission considers the country’s fi rst priority to be

A) prosecuting known terrorist groups.

B) catching known terrorists.

C) dealing with the aftermath of terrorist attacks in the U.S.

D) preventing terrorist attacks.


100) The most active state sponsor of terrorism in the world is

A) Iraq.

B) North Korea.

C) Cuba.

D) Iran.


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