History paper format

[THIS IS A FORMAT SAMPLE for doing Assignment 1 using our ecree platform. The usual SWS form calls for double spacing and a title page (so did APA)—but when we use ecree (as in this HIS105 class)we won’t use double-spacing or a title page. It will be important to write good quality, distinct paragraphs and to organize the paper in the four-part structure called for by the instructions. So, this “format sample” of Assignment 1 has no title page and is single-spaced—except between paragraphs and between source entries at the end. It still has in-text citations (see third paragraph below) and it still has the sources list at the end—you do need those. As required by the instructions, the sources used in this sample are from the REQUIRED list on the instructions sheet. This sample does not really help you on content, but this gives you guidance on each part of the paper—and illustrates the four-part set-up of the paper and the sourcing. Resisting Adversity is the sample title here—and I put it with the first paragraph. ]


Resisting Diversity– PART ONE: INTRODUCTION WITH THESIS Notice how this first line of the paragraph and the heading can go together in this ecree approach to the paper. The PART ONE heading is optional, but probably useful for your own clarity while writing and my clarity when I grade it. You have no worry here about indenting or double-spacing; not needed or wanted for ecree. In terms of content, a format sample like this does not provide that—this sheet just shows the form and organization—and samples of citing. And I provide a few tips here. Keep in mind the paper mostly focuses on a long period—from 1865 to the 1920s; and you will eventually need specific examples from three different decades in that period. But, in this first paragraph, you will have an introduction to your paper and you will also include your thesis statement. Perhaps you feel that overall the political policies of the era did promote diversity despite the prejudices of a few. Or, perhaps you feel the political policies of the era tried mainly to restrict diversity. You can be wide-ranging, using examples related to race in the south and immigration policies for folks from Europe and/or Asia. Or you can be more narrow in your focus, with your paper getting into mainly areas of race—or maybe issues of gender—or focus entirely on immigration from certain regions. You are welcome to find other variations of a thesis based on some rephrasing you do of the topic. The class text discusses this as do other sources on the list; make use of chapters 16 through 21. Keep in mind, the overall issue is some aspect of DIVERSITY and how it develops and is dealt with. So, this first paragraph introduces the topic generally and establishes your focus as to time period and subject, and it states your thesis—your position.


PART TWO—THREE EXAMPLES: The second and third paragraphs will cover your three SPECIFIC examples supporting your thesis. You can be wide ranging or narrow in your focus. Negative examples of policies hindering diversity might range from Plessy vs. Ferguson to the Chinese Exclusion Act to poverty facing new immigrants in big cities to arrests of women demonstrating for the right to vote. Positive examples of policies and conduct promoting diversity might include the many southern black office holders during Reconstruction or the initial embrace of Chinese immigrants as great workers (especially for the railroad) or the spike of numerous new European immigrants coming through Ellis Island in this period or the western states who were first in allowing women to vote.

EXAMPLES CONTINUED–In this part of the paper you really start developing the topic and your position and evidence. The assignment requires you to use the Schultz textbook and at least two other sources from the list on the instruction sheet (don’t use other sources not listed). You also will also be citing sources—and this paragraph illustrates what those in-text citations might look like. For example, you might be discussing court cases that supported segregation (Schultz, 1, p. 338-9). As a long book, you need page or section numbers with the Schultz book. The number 1 tells us it is the first source identified in the paper and it is the first listed on the Sources list at the end. Or, you might be discussing Chinese railroad workers (1) and the specific example of the later restrictive legislation of the Chinese Exclusion Act (2). Notice again how the number 1 shows that the Schultz book was the first source used in this paper and that it is the first listed at the end; but the 2 is for the second source listed at the end; see there. On this same topic, you might find some great material in a scholarly article from the university’s online library—on the list of sources you should draw from. A good example would be an article by Abu-Laban and Lamont (3), who present many examples from this period as they reflect on “the metaphor of the melting pot” as it “refers to processes of immigration, relations of ethnic diversity, and notions of national identity and purpose”. As the number 3 suggests, it listed the third source listed at the end. You will notice that the number given on these citations relates to the order of when they come up in the paper—and so also the numbered order on the Sources list at the end. Again, use only sources on the list provided on the instruction sheet. Since those sources are in SWS form and also have a convenient link with them, one can easily copy/paste the ones you use for your sources list at the end. And, with the link, each source is very easy to access.


PART THREE: OPPOSING VIEW This third section of the paper involves some critical thinking on your part. How might a reasonable person disagree with you and give a different position or counter-argument? For example, perhaps you argued that some reform movement or movements in this period were effective in promoting greater diversity and getting government policies that agreed. (The textbook has many examples on all of this in chapters 16-21.). You can then envision someone taking a different position—that those movements tried but failed against overwhelming economic and political forces that favored people who were white or who were “already here”. In this paragraph, then, you would need to make the reasoned argument that they did have some successes (pointing to evidence you gave) and that to the extent they failed in the short run they did also leave an important legacy that influences new movements in later times. Normally, this part is not so much doing more research or providing more examples. Instead it is about suggesting what that different position might be, and then your own logical rationale for favoring your own position instead. It is just critical thinking on your part.



This fourth section of the paper does not normally involve researching information. It does involve some reflection about the issues covered in your paper and ways those issues perhaps are still around (maybe in a different form). You might have examples in your personal life. You are encouraged here to think about your workplace experiences or the profession you are going into, and how these issues are relevant in that modern context. Think of your major and the types of places you might work—or do work. If you see diversity—why? Affirmative action programs trying to overcome the old barriers? New opportunities or policies by the company or the government? If you don’t see diversity, what are some reasons for that? Education barriers? Biases in hiring as a legacy of the old policies? Less diversity in that geographic area (which also has roots)? Immigration issues? You might think of other ways to connect the modern situation to the history you have written about. Again, this fourth part is normally a paragraph or so—lengthy treatment not needed here. This fourth part should normally serve as the conclusion of the paper. Be sure the body of your paper ends in some way that wraps up succinctly. Then, in ecree, click on the word conclusion to add new paragraph boxes—it works best if you can get each source into its own paragraph box. As below, each source must be numbered and should be in SWS style (as can be copied from the instruction sheet).




1. Kevin M. Schultz. 2018. HIST: Volume 2: U.S. History since 1865. 5th ed.


2. Chinese Exclusion Act. 1882. http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/unprotected/ps/chinese_exclusion_act.htm


3. Y. Abu-Laban & V. Lamont. 1997. Crossing borders: Interdisciplinary, Immigration and the Melting Pot in the American Cultural Imaginary. http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=392542&site=eds-live&scope=site


[It is best if you can get each source into its own paragraph box. As below, each source must be numbered and should be in SWS style (as can be copied from the instruction sheet).



[LAST PART—try this on last part, but don’t worry if you can’t get it just right. Your final essay paragraph will ideally be in the box “Conclusion”. Once typed, then click on that word “Conclusion and it will create a new box below with three dots. Keep clicking “Conclusion” until you have 4 or more “three-dot” boxes—one for the heading Sources and one for each source entry on your list of sources. If you cannot quite get this to work, don’t worry about it—just be sure you have a final paragraph (Part 4—Conclusion—Legacy) followed by the list of sources. Even if those boxes seem mislabeled, we will figure it out ok in the grading. Don’t get worried about that.]




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