Directions: Respond to the following prompts.  Each answer must be a minimum one half of one page in length and utilize APA guidelines for formatting and citations.


1.The Supreme Court has established requirements for using informants in establishing probable cause.  Aguilar v. Texas (1964) established the “two-pronged test.”  This was later abandoned in Illinois v. Gates (1983), which caused the courts to shift to a “totality of the circumstances” test.  Discuss both of these standards for establishing probable cause involving the use of informants.


2.Give examples of a warrantless search involving emergency or exigent circumstances.  Include the three basic circumstances where a warrantless entry may be made under New York v. Quarles.


3.Define and give an example of what a standard of comparison is pertaining to physical evidence.


4.Describe in detail the differences between class and individual characteristics.


5.Probable cause is needed to obtain a valid search warrant.  Describe probable cause in detail.


6.Explain the landmark decision in Terry v. Ohio, which established a police officer’s right to pat down or frisk a person they have stopped to question.  What was the key issue in this case?


7.Describe the limitations on officers concerning a search incidental to an arrest established in the decision of Chimel v. California (1969).


8.Discuss the major differences between the Frye case and the Daubert ruling.


9.Define the term chain of custody (of evidence) and why it is so important in a criminal case.



10.Numerous mistakes can occur when collecting evidence.  Name three of the more prominent errors that can occur that are mentioned in the text.

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