Create  A DISCUSSION response to shemika NU623 APA STYLE. Pls use proper english and let it make sense.

Nephrolithiasis is the third most common problem of the genitourinary system.

Identify and discuss risk factors for kidney stones including cultural considerations.

Studies using the Nurse’s Health Study (NHS) I and NHS II data have established the significance of multiple factors in kidney stone accumulation and disclosed that higher dietary calcium was correlated with a lower risk of kidney stones in women. Patients with kidney stones are at increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease.  According to several studies over the last two decades, findings revealed the importance of dietary and urinary factors, beverages, and body size in the evolution of kidney stones. Factors associated with increased risk for kidney stones include:

  • supplemental calcium,
  • Dietary oxalate
  • Sucrose, Fructose
  • Sugar-sweetened soda, Punch
  • Bmi, Diabetes mellitus (type 2)
  • Cholelithiasis
  • Urinary calcium excretion
  • Urinary oxalate excretion (Prochaska, Taylor, & Curhan, 2016)

The frequency is higher in women who are in their 30s. Copious dietary factors may influence calcium oxalate stone formation, such as consuming calcium, oxalate, potassium, spinach, potatoes, and nuts. Animal protein could increase urinary calcium and decrease urinary citrate, but animal protein is not exclusively associated with a higher incident stone formation.  Men who have had a vasectomy and patients who take diuretics are also at increased risk of developing kidney stones. Kidney stones are more prevalent in the Midwest, Southeast, and the Western part of the United States (Dunphy, Winland-Brown, Porter, & Thomas, 2019). Non-Hispanic white individuals have the greatest prevalence between racial and ethnic groups (10.3%), superseded by Hispanics (6.4%) and non-Hispanic African Americans (4.3%) (Khan et al., 2016).

Patients should follow the dash (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet to minimize the chances of developing a kidney stone. The dash diet includes a lot of fruit and vegetables, minimal processed red meat, and moderated intake of low-fat dairy products. Patients should also abstain from caffeine, wine, and beer(Dunphy, Winland-Brown, Porter, & Thomas, 2019).

Dunphy, L. M., Winland-Brown, J. E., Porter, B. O., & Thomas, D. J. (2019). Primary care: Art and science of advanced practice nursing – an interprofessional approach (5th ed.). [Bookshelf Ambassadored]. Retrieved from!/4/2/2/2@0:0 (Links to an external site.)

Khan, S. R., Pearle, M. S., Robertson, G., Gambaro, G., Canales, K., Doizi, S., … Tiselius, (2016, February 25). Kidney stones. Nat Rev Dis Primers, 2(16008).

Prochaska, M. L., Taylor, E. N., & Curhan, G. C. (2016). Insights Into Nephrolithiasis From the Nurses’ Health Studies. Am J Public Health, 106(9), 1638-1643.


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