Assignment # 1 – Weve explored many ideas on organizational change. Which idea resonated with you the most? Why? Assignment # 2 – One of the four skills Bolman identified as needed for the manager as politicians is bargaining and negotiating, which includes: Separate people from the problem Focus on interests Invent options for mutual gain Insist on objective criteria William Ury, negotiation expert and founder of Harvard’s Program on Negotiation, offers some insights on how to negotiate effectively in the video below. https://www.ted.com/talks/william_ury What did you appreciate about his strategy for dealing with conflict? Thinking back on the previous conflict, what would be the third side? How can you implement this strategy at work? How about your personal life? Assignment # 3 – I have attached the article on Teaching smart people How to learn Read the article and click on the video first, then answer the questions below. Watch the YouTube video Single and Double Loop learning – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywh-v_bBsOc&feature=youtu.be 1. The author provides several examples of defensive reasoning and organizational defensive routines. What are some recent examples you can point to? Explain. 2, Argyris argues that performance evaluations are tailor-made to push professionals into the doom loop. What does he mean by this? How are performance evaluations not teaching smart people how to learn, according to his argument? 3. At the end of the article, Tsoukas argues that “Argyris invites knowledge workers to undertake a primarily moral, not just technical, task.” What is his rationale for making this claim? Assignment # 4 – In Chapter, 16th of Bolman text, Reframing in Action Opportunities and Perils, we looked at various scenarios of how we can integrate framing in a case study: See attachment Chapter 16th Cindy Marshall: new manager with a big challenge Structural Scenario Human Resource Scenario Political Scenario Symbolic Scenario In the Cindy Marshall case study: A new manager with a big challenge High-risk dilemma: looking weak vs. acting impetuously Each frame suggests distinct possibilities Reframing is a tool for generating options Scenarios: story-lines for generating options for action Each frame can be effective or not, depending on skill and insight of individual Structural Scenario Clarify goals Attend to relationships between structure and environment Design and implement structure to fit circumstances Focus on task, facts, logic, not personality or emotion Human Resource Scenario People are at the heart of the organization Respond to their needs and goals, and theyll be committed and loyal in return Align the needs of individuals and organization, serving best interests of both Support and empower people Show concern, listen to their aspirations Communicate warmth and concern Empower through participation and openness Give people resources and autonomy they need to do their jobs Political Scenario Recognize political reality, deal with conflict Know the players (individuals and interest groups) and what they want Build a power base and use power carefully Create arenas for negotiation and compromise Look for and emphasize common interests to unify your group Symbolic Scenario A most important part of a leaders job is an inspiration Give people something to believe in People get excited about a special place with a unique identity where their work is important Be passionate about making the organization the best of its kind, communicate your passion Use dramatic, visible symbols to involve people, communicate the mission Be visible, energetic Create slogans, hold rallies and celebrations, give awards, manage by walking around Study and use organizational culture Use heroes, stories, traditions as a base for build cohesive, meaningful culture Articulate a persuasive, exciting vision 1. If you were in her shoes, which scenario are you most likely to implement? Which scenario do you wish you could more easily implement? 2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each approach? Assignment # 6 – Benefits and Risks of Reframing Frames can be used as scenarios or scripts to generate options and guide action By choosing a new script, we can act in new ways and create new possibilities Choose the role and drama that works for you Each frame has distinctive advantages and risks (see below) Frame Risks Frame Risks Structural Ignore non-rational elements: irrational neglect of human, political and cultural elements Over-rely on authority and under rely on alternative sources of power Human Resource Blinded by a romantic view of human nature Too optimistic about trust and win-win in high-conflict/high-scarcity situations Frame Risks Political Becomes cynical, self-fulfilling prophecy that intensifies conflict misses opportunities for rationality and collaboration You may be seen as amoral, scheming, selfish Symbolic Concepts are elusive Effectiveness heavily dependent on users art and skill Symbols may be employed as fluff, camouflage, manipulation Awkward use of symbols may produce embarrassment, ridicule Reframing for Newcomers and Outsiders Use of only one or two frames often leads to entrapment: inability to generate effective options in tough situations Risk is even higher for newcomers and outsiders (including members of groups that have historically been excluded) Newcomers and outsiders are less likely to get a second chance or the benefit of the doubt when they make mistakes 1. Referring to the dominant leadership orientation you identified on day one, how relevant are the risks identified above? What’s missing? 2. As you saw on the first day of class, most students tend to use a human resource or structural frame. What would be the benefit of having more public service leaders become more competent in using the symbolic and political frame?