PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

TOPIC: Historical Review of Epidemiology

Key individuals and historical events have helped shape the field of epidemiology. Research the following individuals and their roles in shaping contemporary epidemiology:

  1. John Graunt
  2. James Lind
  3. Edward Jenner
  4. Ignaz Semmelweis
  5. John Snow

Choose three of the individuals from your research. In a 1,000-1,250 word paper, describe the epidemiological advancements that were influenced by these individuals. Include the following:

  1. Describe the disease and the event. Using descriptive epidemiology, discuss how common the disease was at the time, who was infected, when it occurred (time of year or season), and the mode of transmission. If the individual is not associated with a specific disease, discuss a significant disease happening during that period.
  2. Discuss how the individuals influenced or advanced epidemiological methods and the process they used to describe and control disease. Discuss how their contributions helped to inform the definition of epidemiology. Consider whether they used qualitative, quantitative, or both types of data collection methods, and the approach they used to test their hypotheses.
  3. Discuss how similar epidemiological methods have been used to understand one current public health issue (not one for each individual). Discuss the key research studies used to understand the risk factors associated with the problem or disease. Two potential examples include lung cancer (Doll and Hill, 1950) or cardiovascular disease and the Framingham Heart Study (Drawber, Meadors, & Moore, 1950; Kannel, 2000).

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide.

RESOURCES

Read Chapters 1, 2, and 6 in Gordis Epidemiology.

Read “Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung,” by Doll and Hill, from British Medical Journal (1950). URL: https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC2038856/pdf/brmedj03566-0003.pdf

Read “The Training of Epidemiologists and Diversity in Epidemiology: Findings from the 2006 Congress of Epidemiology Survey,” by Carter-Pokras et al., from Annals of Epidemiology (2009). URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S104727970900060X

Watch “Epidemiology the Backbone of Public Health,” by Greg Martin (2017), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5XRh47T420

Read “The Framingham Study: ITS 50-Year Legacy and Future Promise,” by Kannel, from Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (2000). URL: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jat1994/6/2/6_2_60/_pdf

Read “Epidemiological Background and Design: The Framingham Study,” located on the Framingham Heart Study website. URL: https://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/fhs-about/history/epidemiological-background/

Read “Epidemiological Approaches to Heart Disease: The Framingham Study,” by Dawber, Meadors, and Moore, from American Journal of Public Health (1951). URL:http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525365/pdf/amjphnation00421-0020.pdf&hl=en&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm10VqiSJ6tLAYY0TMfm15VR8M93MA&nossl=1&oi=scholarr

View “Global Disease Detectives,” by the Center for Global Health (2013), located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/cdctv/dataandstatistics/disease-detectives.html

Read “Section 2: Historical Evolution of Epidemiology,” from Lesson 1 of  the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) self-study course, Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice (2012), located on the CDC website. URL:https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section2.html

Explore the CDC Current Outbreak List page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/outbreaks/index.html

Explore the Epidemic Intelligence Service page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/eis/index.html

Explore the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/index.html

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