PSY 630 CRITICAL REVIEW

Critical Review

The final assignment for this class will be a 10-page critical review of the drug treatment for a psychiatric disorder (broadly defined to include psychological and neurological disorders as well). The review will use peer-reviewed sources to evaluate the current drug treatment modalities for the selected disorder and determine the adequacy of those treatments. The paper will be evaluated on the inclusion of the following information:

Introduction  
Evaluate the disorder in terms of symptomatic and behavioral presentation. Include the time, course, and progression of the disorder. Evaluate and explain special features of the disease epidemiology.

Theory
Evaluate the predominant theory or theories regarding the biological basis of the disorder. Explain the disorder in terms of pertinent neurotransmitter and receptor theories and describe the pertinent evidence of their involvement.  Analyze the neurotransmitter systems in terms of the involved receptors and the use receptor agonists and antagonists in the treatment of the disorder receptor. Include information on the anatomic changes to the central nervous system as appropriate to the topic.

Treatment  
Evaluate drug therapies for treating the disorder based on the current understanding of the biological basis of the disorder and the corresponding behavioral effects of the disorder. Explain pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in relation to the disorder and corresponding drug treatment. Describe any side effects and adverse effects of the drug treatment and their biological basis, including issues related to contraindications, interactions, drug metabolism, and elimination. In addition, explain risks, benefits, and ethical implications for high-risk and exceptional treatment conditions.

Conclusion  
Summarize theories of psychiatric disease as they relate to principles of drug action within the chosen topic. Evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the current theory of the disorder and its treatment and evaluate any controversies regarding ethical and/or risk-benefits perspectives associated with the current treatment. Describe possible areas for future research.

Attention Students: The Masters of Arts in Psychology program is utilizing the Pathbrite portfolio tool as a repository for student scholarly work in the form of signature assignments completed within the program. After receiving feedback for this Critical Review, please implement any changes recommended by the instructor, go to Pathbrite (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and upload the revised Critical Review to the portfolio. (Use the Pathbrite Quick-Start Guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. to create an account if you do not already have one.) The upload of signature assignments will take place after completing each course. Be certain to upload revised signature assignments throughout the program as the portfolio and its contents will be used in other courses and may be used by individual students as a professional resource tool. See the Pathbrite (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. website for information and further instructions on using this portfolio tool.

Writing the Critical Review
The paper:

  • Must be 10 to 12 double-spaced pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must use at least five peer-reviewed sources in addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center

Running head: METHAMPHETAMINE 1

METHAMPHETAMINE 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Pharmacology of Methamphetamines

Lana Eliot

PSY 630

Professor Benton

September 11, 2018

 

 

The Pharmacology of Methamphetamines

 

General Description of Methamphetamines

Methamphetamine can be described as a stimulant drug that is taken by people either in the form of a pill or a bitter-tasting powder. It is soluble in both water and alcohol. The drug has an adverse impact on the central nervous system (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018). This drug is white in color, shiny, and it resembles glass fragments. The chemical composition is like that of amphetamine, which is administered to people with narcolepsy or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The drug is also referred to as crystal, chalk, crank, ice, and meth. It is can be taken by swallowing the pill, inhaling or smoking its powder, snorting, or injecting its powder, which is either dissolved in alcohol or water. The feeling of “highness” fades within a short period after the use thus making individual taken repeated doses regularly. While methamphetamine is associated with both social and addictive aspects, this paper will focus on the pharmacological aspects of the drug. Particularly, it will address neurotransmitters affected, receptors, route of administration, half-life, doses, side effects, among other important facets of the drug in terms of the ADHD.

The Pharmacological Aspects of Methamphetamine

The drug is associated with various pharmacological aspects in its usage in the treatment of ADHD. Pharmacological aspects can be described as the features, uses, and the effects of a certain drug. First, the use of methamphetamine has an impact on various mechanisms that involve different systems in the body thus leading to hyperthermia (Matsumoto et al., 2014). Methamphetamine interferes with the transporters and receptors among other elements of the neurotransmission. It interferes with the working mechanism of monoamine transporters and triggers norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin to be discharged into the synaptic cleft. This practice raises their presence in the body thus affecting the working mechanism of the post-synaptic receptors (Matsumoto et al., 2014). The drug also tends to stop degradation and the re-uptake of the neurotransmitters in the body. This move raises their level in the synaptic cleft.

Moreover, the drug makes the neurotransmitter to produce and raise the rate of metabolism in the central nervous system (CNS) of individuals suffering from ADHD. Additionally, the drug is associated with an increase in the heart rate thus leading to hyperactivity and the production of the high amount of heat in the periphery (Matsumoto et al., 2014). Methamphetamine is also responsible for vasoconstriction in the body. Consequently, it decreases the capacity of the body to deal with the effects of the drastic increase in the amount of heat.

Furthermore, route of administration of the drug is usually affected by methamphetamine. Specifically, the drug has an adverse effect on the liver. Consequently, individuals who use this drug in the treatment of ADHD tend to present hepatitis as their complaint (Matsumoto et al, 2014). Also, some individual who uses the drug to control ADHD suffers from acute liver damage. This condition is caused by the administration of methamphetamine among the patients who are not suffering from viral hepatitis.

Pharmacological aspects of methamphetamine also involve half-life. The half-life of ice depends on the mode of intake that was used. Approximately, between 30 and 54% of the dose of the drug that was taken via the mouth is discharged from the body via the urine as methamphetamine. Additionally, from 10 to 23% of the drug taken in the same manner is excreted via urine in the form of amphetamine. Approximately 45% and 7% of the ice is discharged from the body as methamphetamine and amphetamine respectively. Essentially, the half-life of this drug varies between 5and 30 hours.

The dosage is also one of pharmacological aspects of the drug. The dosage of methamphetamine that is administered to the individuals who are suffering from ADHD is determined by their ages. An adult who is suffering from ADHD is initially administered 5 mg of the drug either once per day or after every 12 hours orally (Milesi-Hallé et al., 2015). The daily dosage might be increased. The increase is done at the intervals of 5 mg/day on a weekly basis until an optimal response is identified. In the maintenance stage, an adult is administered a dosage of 20-25 mg/day, which might be given at intervals of 12 hours. A dosage of 5mg is administered orally every day if the patient is six years and above (Milesi-Hallé et al., 2015). The clinician can also opt to administer the drug after every 12 hours. Just like in adults, the practitioners can increase the daily dose that is administered to patients with ADHD by 5mg per day at weekly intervals. The pattern continues until an optimal response is attained. Nonetheless, the drug is not safe for children age under 6 years and below who are suffering from ADHD.

Despite being used to control ADHD, the drug has various side effects among its users. The drug is a strong stimulant thus increases both physical activities and wakefulness even if it is taken in small quantities (Buck & Siegel, 2015). The drug is also associated with a decrease in appetite, increased levels of respiration, hyperthermia, excessive talkativeness and euphoria. Additionally, methamphetamine results in cardiovascular complications such as irregular heartbeats, rapid heart rate, high blood pressure.

 

Addiction to meth can be devastating. Some of the signs of addiction to the drug includes; Skin picking, drug addicts normally tend to pick at their own skin thereby leaving open sores. Another sign of meth addiction includes hair loss because of lack of nutrients. An addict also can experience skin crawling, as well as tooth decay.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Buck, J. M., & Siegel, J. A. (2015). The effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure. Frontiers in neuroscience9, 151.

Matsumoto, R. R., Seminerio, M. J., Turner, R. C., Robson, M. J., Nguyen, L., Miller, D. B., & O’callaghan, J. P. (2014). Methamphetamine-induced toxicity: an updated review of issues related to hyperthermia. Pharmacology & Therapeutics144(1), 28-40.

Milesi-Hallé, A., Hambuchen, M. D., McMillan, D. E., & Owens, S. M. (2015). The pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine self-administration in male and female rats. Drug and alcohol dependence150, 164-169.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2018). Methamphetamine. Advancing Addiction Science. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/methamphetamine/what-methamphetamine

 

 

 

Running head:

METHAMPHETAMINE

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The P

harmacology

 

of

Methamphetamines

 

Lana Eliot

 

PSY 630

 

Professor Benton

 

September

 

11, 2018

 

 

 

Running head: METHAMPHETAMINE 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Pharmacology of Methamphetamines

Lana Eliot

PSY 630

Professor Benton

September 11, 2018

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