PSYC

Each question needs to be at least 600 words. Most of the work is already finished, I just need for each question to be at least 600 words. Question 3 needs the whole 600 words.

 

  1. What are some of the principles of effective treatment for substance abuse and dependance?

 

Substance abuse addiction treatment comes in a variety of different combinations and treatment modalities that are measured by clinician to best fit the patient’s needs and the identification of the type of substance that is being abused. One of the most widely known substance abuse treatment plans is a 12-step program which aims at engaging people in abstinence while in recovery with 12-step peer support groups as well as aiming for the person to understand the impact the substance has on them and their family (Thomas et al., n.d.). This substance abuse treatment begins with the individual first, this means that the individual was first have accepted the fact that they are abusing the substance and the desire to receive help in order to abstain in the future (Thomas et al., n.d.). Specifically, for the abuse of alcohol, cognitive behavioral therapy in combination with the 12-step program and group therapy an individual is able to reach sobriety and keep it (Thomas et al., n.d.). The 12-step program is fundamentally the most widely known therapeutic measures to combat substance abuse however there are alternatives 2 alcohol anonymous and 12 step programs (Thomas et al., n.d.). Due to the complexities of substance abuse clinicians have variety of effective tools and techniques available to them to help the individual break and recover from problematic substance use (Abuse, –).

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a treatment that focuses on the patients maladaptive behaviors, identify coping skills, in risky situations that the patient may find themselves in which could results in relapse, behavioral therapy in combination with psychotropic medications can be an effective means in treating several types of substance use disorder such as alcohol, marijuana, and stimulants (Abuse, –). There are several other affective substance abuse treatment modalities such a dialectical behavioral therapy, rational emotive behavior therapy, and the matrix model. Each of these modalities target specific areas of a person’s cognition, personality, and behavior to find an effective means to help the individual rehabilitate (Abuse, –). However, just like the 12 step program the individual must be willing and able to receive the therapy and implemented into their life Having family members involved and taught about how the treatment will go can have a tremendous positive affect on the individual trying to achieve sobriety (Thomas et al., n.d.)

In conclusion in order to have an effective treatment plan both the individual and the clinician and sometimes family need to work together to find the right treatment modality, detoxify the patients, and set up support groups for the individual to have accountability any formal supports exterior to the family dynamic and the clinician . Medication can also be used in combination with treatment and has shown to be relatively effective.

Abuse, N. I. on D. (–). Principles of Effective Treatment. National Institute on Drug Abuse. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/principles-effective-treatment

Thomas, S., October 28, Mdl. U., & 2019. (n.d.). Different Kinds of Therapy Used in Addiction Treatment. American Addiction Centers. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://americanaddictioncenters.org/therapy-treatment

  1. Could the public associate a valuable medicinal agent (i.e., a medicine) with the dark world of doping and performance-enhancing drugs? Even worse, could some people accuse these companies of developing drugs that could be misused by athletes as a way of enhancing sales? Discuss the implications.

 

In the world of sports, the use performance enhancing drugs is an ever-spinning wheel for individual athletes seeking to have a competitive edge against their peer competitors. Even in ancient Greece athletes would use a variety of plants that with stimulant affects to boost themselves for competition (Doping in Sports and Its Spread to At-Risk Populations: An International Review, n.d.). In the world of medicine there are many medicinal agents that are used to help repair, enhance, and trigger growth in an individual patient’s body to help them recover from some type of physical illness or complication (Some Banned Olympic Doping Drugs Have Actual Medical Uses, n.d.). There are three general categories of compounds that athletes seek: endurance, compounds that make then stronger and faster, and compounds that help in the recovery process (Some Banned Olympic Doping Drugs Have Actual Medical Uses, n.d.). Endurance compounds increase the amount of oxygen your blood carries throughout your body and generally comes in 2 popular methods transfusion a red blood cells into the athlete’s body or erythropoietin, a compound that increases red blood cells they carry oxygen in the athlete’s body (Doping in Sports and Its Spread to At-Risk Populations: An International Review, n.d.). Anabolic compounds are set out for athletes that are trying to get stronger and faster such as testosterone or the human growth hormone. Lastly individuals will seek compounds that help in the recovery process to either help an athlete recover from an injury or restore fuel quicker than the average human (Some Banned Olympic Doping Drugs Have Actual Medical Uses, n.d.).

The use of medicinal agents can and will be used outside other normal scope of practice by individuals seeking to enhance themselves in some fashion. The general public often does not see the medicinal use of medicine or chemicals but rather here on sport news or ESPN on how one of their favorite athletes was caught using either over the counter or prescribed medication to enhance themselves for competition. Thus, the public might be associating that particular compound or medicine with the dark world of doping leading them to accuse companies of marketing their product towards athletes and enhancing their sales. However, I think the individual has to do research and understand what that compound was first developed and its intended use the interpretation the companies are developing compounds or medicine specifically for sports will be seen as misguided.

Doping in sports and its spread to at-risk populations: An international review. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219897/

Some Banned Olympic Doping Drugs Have Actual Medical Uses. (n.d.). University of Michigan. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://labblog.uofmhealth.org/body-work/some-olympic-doping-drugs-may-have-legitimate-medical-uses

  1. What are the behavioral symptoms of marijuana use?
  2. Discuss sleep aids and cough-and-cold remedies as some of the other classes of over-the-counter drugs.

Over the counter medication, cough and cold remedies and sleep aids are easily assessable and directly sold medication directly to the consumer without a prescription from a medical provider. Over the counter medication intended use is to treat acute illnesses, symptoms, and aid with mild symptoms of insomnia. sleep aids offer melatonin, Diphenhydramine, Doxylamine succinate, Valerian Which are found in our everyday over the counter medications such as Benadryl, Aleeve, sleep tablets and nNghtQuil (Your Guide to Over-the-Counter Sleep Aids, n.d.). these medications are quite effective for individuals that are experiencing high stress and anxiety throughout the day or are having trouble sleeping due to allergies. However, the prolonged use of these antihistamines can cause an individual to develop a tolerance Leading an individual to increase the dosage (Abuse, 2017). The aforementioned chemicals can also be dangerous for individuals that have an underlying illness that has not been diagnosed leading to serious health complications (Your Guide to Over-the-Counter Sleep Aids, n.d.). The best course of action to get good sleep is changing the sleep habits or introducing sleep hygiene therapeutic measures u as behavioral therapy or recording the sleep and getting a sleep study.

Cough and cold remedies such as DayQuil and NightQuil offer great benefits to individuals that are suffering from fever, body aches, and other mild symptoms that do not require physician intervention however they can be abused. A person can abuse these medications because of the effects they feel when taking them (Your Guide to Over-the-Counter Sleep Aids, n.d.). Sleep aids can cause a person to feel tired, groggy, and loopy. These effects become a necessity to those who use the medication to escape reality or for those that are depressed and want to just sleep away the days (Abuse, 2017). When used in the correct manned sleep aids and cough and cold remedies are beneficial to the majority of consumers and are a benefit to have easy access to.

Abuse, N. I. on D. (2017, December 17). Over-the-Counter Medicines DrugFacts. National Institute on Drug Abuse. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/over-counter-medicines

Your guide to over-the-counter sleep aids. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/sleep-aids/art-20047860

 

 

  1. Relate the biomedical model of mental illness to the development of psychiatric drugs.

About medical model of unit posits that all mental and cognitive disorders are due to chemical imbalances that cause brain diseases. Since this model is largely focused on the biological imbalances of chemicals in the brain psychiatric medications are produced to target the specific imbalances in the brain such as dopamine, norepinephrine, or serotonin to name the most general of imbalances (The Biomedical Model of Mental Disorder: A Critical Analysis of Its Validity, Utility, and Effects on Psychotherapy Research – PubMed, n.d.). Since the biomedical model is based upon the notion that all mental disorders are directly related to a physical cause, the focus is on genetics, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, neurophysiology (Biomedical and Psychotherapeutic Mental Illness Treatment, n.d.). Psychiatrist treat the mental disorder much like a Physician treats physical conditions. Medications commonly used are antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anti-anxiety medications (The Biomedical Model of Mental Disorder: A Critical Analysis of Its Validity, Utility, and Effects on Psychotherapy Research – PubMed, n.d.). This model requires the collaborative effort of both the doctor and the patient to create an environment in which cognitive therapy and the identification of factors that may contribute two or trigger mental illnesses by the psychiatrist (Biomedical and Psychotherapeutic Mental Illness Treatment, n.d.).

Once the identification happens medications to treat the imbalances or mental disorder is given in unison with cognitive treatment modalities (Biomedical and Psychotherapeutic Mental Illness Treatment, n.d.). These treatment modalities are some of the most common used such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy concentrates an individual’s incorrect perceptions of themselves and correcting unwanted behavior wow interpersonal therapy focuses on the interpersonal interactions with family and friends and improving communication skills (Biomedical and Psychotherapeutic Mental Illness Treatment, n.d.). Limitations to this model depends on the patients lowliness to participate and not only psychotherapy but in psychiatric medications (The Biomedical Model of Mental Disorder: A Critical Analysis of Its Validity, Utility, and Effects on Psychotherapy Research – PubMed, n.d.).

Biomedical and Psychotherapeutic Mental Illness Treatment. (n.d.). King University Online. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://online.king.edu/news/comparing-biomedical-and-psychotherapeutic-models-of-mental-illness-treatment/

The biomedical model of mental disorder: A critical analysis of its validity, utility, and effects on psychotherapy research—PubMed. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23664634/

  1. Discuss the components of school-based substance-abuse prevention programs that have worked in the past.

The use of drugs in middle to high schools is and always be a concern for future generations. In the last 20 years alcohol has been consistently used by 81% seniors reporting that they had been drunk At least once in the past month (Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention Programs, n.d.). Illicit drugs are also of concern for schools with the greatest threat being marijuana.  In the past the majority of substance abuse prevention programs focused on scare tactics or just say no campaigns versus teaching them to build positive self-esteem and foundational skills to resist peer pressure. These campaigns or ineffective to the majority of the population that it was targeting (Drug Abuse Prevention, n.d.). For the last few decades or private and public resources are being utilized to prevent use from obtaining and using alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs which has proven successful in its implementation strategies. In recent curriculum schools have shifted to normalize education in which promotes education on alcohol tobacco and other drugs that dispels the myth that everybody is doing it, this curriculum includes normative education, social skills, social influences, perceived harm, refusal skills and protective factors (Drug Abuse Prevention, n.d.). Implementing such strategies has proven to significantly improve the school-based substance abuse prevention program.

Normative education helps dispel the myth that everybody is doing it and help students understand that they overestimate how active the peers are in using alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs (Drug Abuse Prevention: School-Based Strategies That Work. ERIC Digest., n.d.). Social skills program teaches students how to improve their verbal skills to deescalate social situations in which they are being peer pressured into doing something they don’t want to do as well as being assertive (Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention Programs, n.d.). Social influences skills teach students to recognize role models, advertising, and external stimuli or pressure to use alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs and develop the skills necessary to resist those pressures (Drug Abuse Prevention: School-Based Strategies That Work. ERIC Digest., n.d.). In perceived harm, protective factors, and refusal skills Students are taught the short and long term consequences substance usage resulting and then wanting to learn ways on how to affectively receives peer pressure and encourages them to set goals and challenges students to live up to their potential (Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention Programs, n.d.).

Drug Abuse Prevention: School-based Strategies That Work. ERIC Digest. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.ericdigests.org/1998-1/drug.htm

Drug Abuse Prevention: School-based Strategies That Work. ERIC Digest. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.ericdigests.org/1998-1/drug.htm

Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention Programs. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://hanleyfoundation.org/prevention/

  1. Discuss the importance of different sociocultural filters for effective substance-abuse prevention.

Depending on the culture social cultural filters can be different for each individual. Each culture has a difference but they just preference, a way to relieve stress, their own perspective of what a community is, and how they go about living their lives. Diverse cultures have different standards, different views on how an individual should be able, and what a daily life should look like (Gulf Bend MHMR Center, n.d.).  There are so many numerous factors in the social cultural model substance abuse prevention. It is imperative for a clinician to understand the population in which they are treated and some of the cultural norms that could be contributing to the substance use and how to target those high-risk behaviors to prevent substance abuse (Gulf Bend MHMR Center, n.d.). Some cultures they use of medication or seeking out a doctor is frowned upon or it has some type of stigma (Gulf Bend MHMR Center, n.d.). In the military specifically the stigma of seeking out behavioral health means that there is something either wrong with you mentally or that you are weak.

Gulf Bend MHMR Center. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.gulfbend.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=48340&cn=1408

  1. Examine the importance of family systems in substance-abuse prevention attempts.

Family is a word that has many definitions and can mean something different to each person. As a military family we realize that the people we are close to at our duty stations are our family because we that emotional connection on a certain and we are there to support each when we are long distances from our blood relatives. When considering family systems for those who are suffering from substance abuse it is important to ask individual who they consider family, who are they close to, and who do they want to be a part of the family system? When the person suffering from substance abuse is willing to be treated most treatments include individual therapy. This type of therapy is good for the client and allows them to look at themselves and work towards reaching new goals they have for themselves. However, in this type of setting only the client is understanding what is changing and what is supposed to happen which can cause confusion and frustration for the family members. The family is unaware of the goals the individual has set for themselves.

When adding in a family system and using family therapy it is no longer just about the client but also about those who interact daily with the client and how they all can work together to reach new goals. Family systems are so important when preventing substance abuse attempts. If an individual is comfortable with the people around them who they consider family, and these people are supportive of each other it allows for communication. Family systems are there to support each other and listen to what the others are saying and work together when problems arise, so they don’t go too far and begin to suffer from substance abuse. Family systems are similar to checks and balance. The family is constantly checking in with each other to make sure everyone is ok and when there is something wrong it is up to the family to work as a team to restore the balance.

(Treatment, 2004)Treatment, C. for S. A. (2004). Chapter 1 Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy. In Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64269/

  1. Analyze the challenges in designing effective substance-abuse treatment programs.

Challenges when designing effective substance-abuse treatment programs lies in the fact that no one person is alike. Each abuser is different, their drug problem is different, their background is different, and their lifestyles are different. When designing a program, it is difficult because the program is designed to be able to help almost everyone so then the program becomes very broad and generalized and does not cover or treat everything a person needs. Substance abuse treatment programs should be individualized, which is a challenge in itself because the healthcare professional is tasked with creating a plan specific to each person. Each treatment plan is important and should be tailored to each patient so that they recognize they are not just another number in the group. They are important and someone is invested in their health and safety and wants to help them. There are many factors to consider when developing treatment plans. Is there enough manpower, funding, and time to create all of this for each patient?

Treatment programs typically focus on the substance abuse and barely break the surface of what is the cause of the abuse. In order to effectively treat these individuals time has to be spent getting to know them and their life story, knowing who they are and why they are like that. Once that has been established it can be assessed that certain life events could have caused a negative reaction and/or behavior which ultimately ended with substance abuse. The length of time for in-depth treatment programs is extensive but beneficial. More patients recover and have better outcomes when undergoing extensive treatment. Time though is a problem, not everyone wants to endure months of therapy and treatment to get better. Initially, maybe they wanted help but because it was going to require a major effort on their part they chose to run and take the easy way out and go back to what they know. It can be scary to ask for help and seek treatment, so it is important for these programs to be readily available at all times. So that when a person makes that split decision that they want help it is right there for them and they don’t have to wait and second guess themselves.

Abuse, N. I. on D. (–). Principles of Effective Treatment. National Institute on Drug Abuse. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/principles-effective-treatment

 

 

 

  1. Based on our current research, who is at greatest risk for alcohol abuse or dependence?

Youth are at the greatest risk for alcohol dependence and abuse. Adolescence is a trying time; many kids are going through puberty and are experiencing changes physically and emotionally. Independence is a big factor in developing alcohol abuse or dependence. As they are getting older their parents are less restrictive and hope to provide more freedom so that youth can learn to be responsible and accountable for their actions. This freedom allows for greater risks to be taken and experimenting with alcohol begins. Risk taking and thrill seeking is a development that begins in adolescence and alcohol use can begin.

The thought of taking a risk and drinking is exciting, maybe to see what they can get away with, or how much they can drink, or how their friends will see them if they drink. The brain is still developing at this stage of life and the thrill is there, but the possibility of consequences doesn’t occur. It’s always the thought of “it won’t happen to me”. Drinking at such a young age an adolescent can build up a tolerance for alcohol and may need to drink more in order to feel the same effects as before. This can result in the youth becoming dependent on alcohol and abusing it. The dependence of alcohol so early on is critical and should be addressed as soon as possible. Chronic use of alcohol at such a young age can cause memory issues and learning problems. In addition, liver disease can become an issue if not in adolescence later in life if the drinking continues and the growth and development of the adolescent’s body can be altered with the abuse of alcohol.

Underage Drinking-Why Do Adolescents Drink, What Are the Risks, and How Can Underage Drinking Be Prevented? (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm

 

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