Qualitative Article Title

Qualitative Article Title: Gender Determinants of Vaccination Status in Children: Evidence from a Meta-Ethnographic Systematic Review

Merten et al. (2015) authored the above named article. A systematic qualitative research is conducted which is aimed at reviewing the gender related reasons at family, individual, community and the health facility levels on why millions of kids in both the low are the middle and middle income countries have not been reached by routine vaccination programs. The gender determinants of children vaccination status is discussed. This selection utilizes the case studies research design.

Problem Statement

Routine childhood immunization is important in reducing both the infant and childhood mortality. According to Merten et al. (2015), the vaccinations should targets the parents and not only the mothers. Vaccination coverage improvements can only be achieved if both communities and fathers can be involved in vaccination initiative.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of the study was to show the children vaccination status in relation to gender determinants. In addition was to show the number of vaccinated children and unvaccinated children globally for six preventable kids’ diseases.

Research Question(s)

  1. How does the vaccinations status in children affected by the gender determinants in both the high and low middle-income countries?
  2. How can the low and middle-income countries come up with programs and policies that can address better the gender barriers to immunization at a future date?


Meta-ethnographic methods were used to conduct a systematic review of the qualitative research. A systematic search of Embase, Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, IBSS, CSA databases, Anthropological and Sociological Abstracts were conducted. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which showed the barriers to childhood routine immunizations, were retained. Only the papers that contained in-depth qualitative data were considered and retained. The studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012. The extraction of all the 25 studies was done by independent authors who extracted study and sample characteristic together with the key findings in the form of topical, quotes and concepts. Three order constructs was constructed in which the first expressed the direct quotes, the second, which gave study’s participants experiences and the third, which formed the interpretation of the first and second level constructs.

Key Findings

Three broad themes are identified in the paper, which are the accessibility to the vaccination services, the worldview and knowledge and trust in services. Access to the vaccination services showed that in low resources settings the indirect costs involved e.g. transportation charges hinders the immunization process by the parents. Time constraints also minimizes the limits to proper access of immunizations particularly in environments where we have feminized tasks, which creates competing obligations. Moreover social exclusion where specific women are normally disadvantaged as well as poverty and shame.

Under the demand for vaccination services, literacy has been identified as a barrier to immunization in the last 3 decades. Under the trust for vaccinations, studies in India, Uganda, Bolivia, Turkey and Nigeria has reported increase in resistance to the immunization campaigns. Many dimensions of inequality have continued to restrict women’s accessibility to health services.