Question 1 of 20
__________ is a necessary element of criminal responsibility; it requires that a person knowingly and intentionally committed a legal offense.
A. Mens rea
B. Actus reus
C. Caveat emptor
D. A mitigating circumstance
Question 2 of 20
If human beings are, by nature, hedonistic then we naturally seek:
Question 3 of 20
Self-defense and defense of others would be considered:
A. mitigating circumstances.
B. justifications for criminal conduct.
C. excuses for criminal conduct.
D. defensible prohibitions.
Question 4 of 20
The moral significance of determinism derives from the lack of __________ it implies.
A. social skills
Question 5 of 20
Identifying and incapacitating people we believe to be at high risk for future criminal activity before they have had the opportunity to commit those future criminal acts is a practice referred to as:
B. selective incapacitation.
C. risk avoidance.
D. psychological determinism.
Question 6 of 20
Which of the following is discussed in your text as a possible causal factor in the higher rates of aggression and violence we find in geographical areas that are the most heavily crowded?
C. Child abuse and neglect
D. Selective incapacitation
Question 7 of 20
In simplest terms, determinism holds that:
A. every event has a cause.
B. we are naturally motivated to avoid pain.
C. moral beliefs are a product of the culture in which one lives.
D. no human action is “caused” in the scientific sense of the word.
Question 8 of 20
__________ refers to an attempt to instill in citizens—either individual lawbreakers or the public at large—a fear of the consequences for violating the law.
A. Selective incapacitation
Question 9 of 20
__________ play a role in imitative behavior; areas of the brain respond in similar ways when watching others engage in behavior as when engaging in the behavior oneself.
A. Primal cells
B. Prefrontal consequences
C. Soft determinisms
D. Mirror neurons
Question 10 of 20
Which of the following refers to circumstances (e.g., presence of mental illness) surrounding a criminal event that reduce, but do not eliminate, moral responsibility and the severity of punishment imposed?
A. Omissive circumstances
B. Mitigating circumstances
D. Criminal nullification
Question 11 of 20
Which of the following is theorized to play an important role in imitative behavior and our capacity to relate to and empathize with other people?
A. Mirror neurons
B. Thermal imaging
C. Geocritical mass
D. Autonomic nervous system
Question 12 of 20
Moral responsibility or blameworthiness that attaches to persons who freely and knowingly engage in wrongful actions is sometimes referred to as:
D. legal cause.
Question 13 of 20
Which of the following is sometimes held to be the only “event” for which there is no cause?
A. Free will
D. Moral character
Question 14 of 20
The notion that every event has a cause is the central premise underlying:
Question 15 of 20
If we eliminate free will completely, we would also be eliminating:
A. the possibility of genetic bases for human behavior.
B. the value of modern science.
C. moral responsibility.
D. excuses for criminal conduct.
Question 16 of 20
The power to make choices and engage in actions that originate with ourselves is referred to as:
A. free will.
Question 17 of 20
Which of the following, though only in its infancy, may be the future standard for detecting dishonesty in police departments and courtrooms?
B. Brain fingerprinting
C. “Pleasure machines”
D. Mirror neuron modulators
Question 18 of 20
Intellectual deficits, blood chemistry disorders, and brain disorders are examples of __________ deterministic influences.