Research Proposal

The​ ​transportation​ ​issues​ ​in​ ​Chinese​ ​Universities

Yiling​ ​Zhang

10​ ​/​ ​18​ ​/​ ​2017

TA:​ ​Joshua​ ​Newton



University campus traffic safety is an important part of a university safety management. With the increase in motor vehicle ownership and opening of new degree programs, the campus traffic safety issue has been required more attention. A detailed analysis of literature reveals that there are plenty of reasons such as lack of parking space, lack of traffic facilities and ignorance the traffic rules that cause the safety issues. Strengthen management, provision of basic equipment and awareness campaigns for all stakeholders are the primary suggestions to solve traffic safety issue​ ​in​ ​campus​ ​area.








Literature​ ​Review

The campus transportation system is an important part of college campus planning, along

with the constant enlargement of the university campus space scale. The university campus in

both China and America in terms of scale are part of the town. Most campus traffic issues arise

due to the insufficient knowledge both at theoretical and application. The primary question of

this​ ​research​ ​study​ ​is​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​the​ ​existing​ ​traffic​ ​safety​ ​issues​ ​within​ ​boundaries​ ​of​ ​a​ ​campus.

The rapid development of higher education, the number of college students are

increasing. At the same time, increasing numbers of cars on the campus directly cause the

parking issues. As the campus opens to the public and the function as a place of the logistics

socialization. The vertical rate is increasing. In China, the system of the transportation is being

messy and traffic accidents have been increased. To a certain extent, it dangerously influences

campus​ ​security​ ​and​ ​stability.

A journal article, titled, “The university campus transportation status reasons and the

countermeasure analysis” the author, Feiqi Wang studies the situation of the transportation

system in universities in China and points out the issues they are facing right now. First of all, he

mentioned that the defects of the system on safety management, which leads the campus traffic

management University campus traffic safety management are generally self-management, but

defense is not law enforcement, no right to punishment and pecans vehicles on campus, only the

traffic police department has the right to deal with them. But in fact, the law enforcement not

actively into the university campus, result in drivers don’t obey the management of security



guards, which is a serious threat to the campus traffic safety. In addition, lack of parking makes

vehicles park on the road and the pavement encroachment on both sides. Most campuses have

dormitory, classroom building, dining hall and restaurants, the repast and activities occupy the

gap​ ​time​ ​between​ ​classes​ ​could​ ​easily​ ​cause​ ​accidents.

Another article named, “The transportation system in University campus.” The author

also points out the vehicle parking issue, it has become the major concern for the university in

China. He also states that another problem is faultiness of transportation infrastructure

construction. The intersections in most of the campus do not have traffic lights, especially in the

rush hour, there is also no commander control the mess. Lacking pedestrian crossing, traffic

lights on the connecting parts for school and outside which leads transportation system into a bad


Based on the article, “Transportation problems and it’s solution.” the authors mentioned

the solution that universities use other than China to help develop the transportation system.

They introduce, the University of California, Los Angeles has built 14 parking lot for the

teachers and students and other employees around teaching and research building. Foreign

business anchor on the side of the road of the campus the vehicles for short periods of time, need

to make table billing. “STOP” signs around the campus all traffic intersection, It requires that the

vehicles must make people preferred by through campus, and drew out the pedestrian. Don’t

allow parking temporary parking Spaces, parking Spaces for disabled persons, seat and allow

parking​ ​time​ ​limit​ ​clearly​ ​marked​ ​on​ ​the​ ​campus​ ​road.

The state university of New York: teaching areas prohibit motor vehicle, the school has the free

shuttle for teachers and students, seven days a week, and run 20 hours a day. The campus vehicle



shall not exceed 15 miles per hour. At the University of Auckland, New Zealand: teaching

central district road shall practice a system ban of a motor vehicle, in addition to the use of the

vehicle bus, bicycle, the disabled, other than the university bus and implement emergency

service vehicles and other vehicles shall be no thoroughfare. And the cars be allowed to pass

through this section, the speed to strict rules has to be 10 km and under. Dublin Institute of

technology set the electronic signs at the school gate, the route and parking areas, clear cites the

driving​ ​directions​ ​and​ ​parking​ ​areas,​ ​the​ ​vertical​ ​is​ ​banned​ ​in​ ​teaching​ ​central​ ​district.

According all the research showed above, lack of parking space, incomplete system

management and lack of traffic facilities are the main reason that may cause potential safety

issues. Because of the national condition differences, parking inside the university in America is

much easier than in China. The main reason is America has a complete system. First of all, the

large amount of parking structure takes over the campus area in universities in America. Parking

permit​ ​plays​ ​the​ ​important​ ​role​ ​for​ ​the​ ​students​ ​and​ ​teachers​ ​who​ ​drive​ ​to​ ​school.

The person who owns the permit would be able to park at the designated areas. Base on the

University of California San Diego, there are six type permits, which include faculty and senior

staff parking, staff and graduate student parking, students parking, off-peak hours staff parking,

night & weekend parking and motorcycle parking. For those who do not have a parking permit,

the parking kiosk can be seen everywhere on the campus. The parking charge by hours which is

$2 per hour or purchase whole day for $20, cash and card are both acceptable, once finish the

paying, take out the receipt that it printed and then leave it inside the car on the front of the




A book named “Modern urban transportation system” that wrote by Lihua Piao said, In 1990,

President Bush formally published the Disabilities Act (Americans with Disability Act of 1990,

“ADA”). In 2010, the U.S. justice department updates the ADA design specifications, the design

in the parking lot must make the pledge that we shall have a barrier-free under 25 parking

space;100 parking Spaces below must have five disabled parking space. The blue background

with white Symbol of a wheelchair, as an International common barrier-free facilities marks

(English name International Symbol of Access), sometimes this logo draws on the ground.

Without a parking permit, the car that on the disabled parking spot can get ticket. The campus

transportation​ ​planning​ ​is​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​whole​ ​campus​ ​planning.

The article, “The sustainable development of the modern university campus traffic

planning research” The author Xiaonian Xie mentioned that the traffic is not only an important

carrier of entertainment for student campus life, it also affects campus management tools.

Transportation is the core of school management, in the whole school management and planning

should cause more attention. Zongbo Tan mentioned in his book “urban planning” For solving

the traffic problems, not an isolated one-sided consideration, everything is developing and

connected.​ ​The​ ​campus​ ​transportation​ ​needs​ ​to​ ​work​ ​together​ ​on​ ​various​ ​aspects.

Traffic problems on campus are about all the teachers and students in school and the vital

interests of the faculty, everyone is closely linked, school leaders, teachers, students should

actively take action. In addition, the transportation issues need a lot of knowledge of discipline

and coordination of various departments. The campus transportation management requires strong

leadership. Promoting in the campus traffic planning decision-making, engaged in transportation



research of the teacher’s voice. Professional people do professional thing, it can only be scientific

and​ ​rationale​ ​for​ ​the​ ​campus​ ​through​ ​the​ ​planning​ ​and​ ​design.

The campus transportation management should be heavy-handed and geared of all

people. some university campus in order to meet the needs of a growing number of motor

vehicles, road planning, construction, and campus management policy is too tilted to the car, and

non-motor vehicle not only lanes to motor vehicles, but also start parking on the sidewalk, the

campus is turning into the car campus, which leads to traffic congestion, increase the incidence

of accidents, campus environment pollution issues and so on. Therefore, the campus

transportation​ ​management​ ​and​ ​planning​ ​should​ ​let​ ​more​ ​people​ ​feel​ ​equal.

There is some advice for developing the transportation system in the universities in

China. First of all, further improve the transportation system. The principal should carefully

prevent the campus traffic accident, comprehensive grasp the campus traffic safety facilities,

parking facilities planning for further detailed baseline screening. Screening results to establish

archives, form a complete campus road transportation management information, insist on regular

screening per semester, grasp the campus road traffic safety situation and to carry out the

targeted management to find the weak links, prevent the school traffic accident and maintain

campus​ ​stability.

School should make a plan for hiring guards and security management professional

training and supervise security guards, strengthen the road patrol, dissuade in time if find a

dangerous driving situation. Secondly, try to raise the level of transportation safety. The traffic

administrative department of the school needs to strengthening the management of campus road

driving, speeding, retrograde and parking not follow the provisions. Third, develop on traffic



facilities, such as build signal lights and “STOP” sign just as other universities outside the China,

and also limit the vehicles that can enter to school. At the same time, strengthening the traffic

safety​ ​education​ ​of​ ​students.

So they can understand the meaning of various types of traffic signals and improve

self-protection ability to reduce the campus traffic accident. Fourth, standardize the management

of shuttle and bus. School should hire the drivers who own the bone professional morals,

experienced and with a great record and then signed a letter of responsibility for safe driving and

in order to establish the corresponding education and management system. Strengthening the

school bus driver education and management, to improve the driver’s traffic safety awareness.

Fifth, cooperation and cooperation, strengthen the linkage with the local law enforcement


The relevant departments of the school should take the practical work of the school road

traffic safety as a practical implementation of the scientific concept of development, build a

harmonious campus, safeguard the fundamental profit of the teachers and students, strengthen

the communication of information, actively cooperate and take practical measures to strengthen.

Strengthen the contact with the local executive departments such as traffic police and

cooperation. One is conducive to the school security department of business guidance, while

helping the security sector strengthen the campus traffic safety publicity and management efforts

to help deal with campus traffic accidents and motor vehicles violations; the second is to help

schools to strengthen the school gate and the surrounding traffic and keep in in order, to ensure

the​ ​safety​ ​of​ ​teachers​ ​and​ ​students.



Lastly, scientifically and targeted to plan the construction of campus transport

infrastructure, increase investment, improve the mechanism, improve the scientific and

technological content. In view of the risks of school traffic safety, the school should increase the

capital investment and improve all kinds of transportation facilities. The current campus traffic

management system cannot meet the needs of the development of colleges and universities.

Standardized parking management, effective control of outside vehicles, so as to achieve the

reduction of motor vehicle traffic on campus, reduce traffic accidents and create a good campus

traffic​ ​environment.

The article named, “Analysis of the Current Situation of University Campus.” Junbing

Xu mentioned that some colleges and universities have established the traffic management mode

of the campus intelligent contact IC card ( A plastic card containing a computer chip and

enabling the holder to purchase goods and services) induction system, and the campus traffic

order​ ​has​ ​obviously​ ​improved,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​campus​ ​traffic​ ​accident​ ​is​ ​obviously​ ​reduced.

In sum, the traffic management of colleges and universities related to the peace of the

staff and students, related to the safety and stability of colleges and universities, which requires

us to give full play to the role of university traffic managers in the work of scientific

development concept of continuous learning, exploration and practice in order to make the

university’s traffic management work to keep up with the pace of the times, and truly for the safe

campus​ ​construction.







Feiqi Wang, “​The university campus transportation status reasons and the countermeasure analysis”​ ​,​ ​Time​ ​Education,​ ​September,​ ​​2012 Caixia​ ​Zhu​​ ​“The​ ​transportation​ ​system​ ​in​ ​University​ ​campus.”​ ​​,​ ​Zhengzhou,​ ​2008 Zhongying​ ​Shi,​​ ​“Transportation​ ​problems​ ​and​ ​it’s​ ​solution.”,​ ​​2013 Lihua​ ​Piao​ ​,​ ​​“Modern​ ​urban​ ​transportation​ ​system”​ ​​38-45,​ ​People’s​ ​Education​ ​Press,​ ​2015 Xiaonian Xie and Tong Yao​“The sustainable development of the modern university campus traffic​ ​planning​ ​research”​ ​Zongbo​ ​Tan,​ ​“​urban​ ​planning”​ ​,​ ​​Tsinghua​ ​University,​ ​216-284,​ ​​2​005​ ​Junbing​ ​Xu,​ ​“​Analysis​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Current​ ​Situation​ ​of​ ​University​ ​Campus.​”,​ ​Hubei,​ ​2012


Typewritten Text
You have a good start here, but most of this reads more like an annotated bibliography (summaries of readings) than a literature review (putting authors in conversation). Also, part of the paper where you make recommendations seems out of place. My main concern though, when looking at your story board, is how you will turn this into a research project. Transportation at Chinese universities seems a bit broad. Are you possibly going to do a case study of a particularly effective Chinese university? Are you interested in a particular aspect of transportation? It seems like you wrote a lot on parking. Are you interested in how effective universities deal with the issue of parking demand? In moving toward the proposal, I think you need to narrow your idea down a bit more. I think you are at the topic phase and now need to move into the specific research question phase. Also, the formatting of your works cited doesn’t have enough detail so I can’t be sure if these articles are peer-reviewed or not, but I do notice you have no books included. Dr. Pezzoli wanted you to have at least 2 books in your literature review.
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