Simulation Task #5

This is an individual task to develop a warning message to the public based upon the scenario. The warning message should be developed using course resources. The task is twofold:

Develop the specific message that would be released through the media and announced by the PIO. (Consider what does the public need to know? and what do you need them to do?) (make sure you use course resources on message mapping and the research on warning messages – Week #4).
Write a 1-2 page explanation of the warning message you constructed. Cite course materials from the syllabus concerning the development of warning messages.

Upload a word or PDF file to the assignment folder that contains both the specific warning message and the 1-2 page explanation (4.5 points).


Week #4 and Week #6 Course Materials and Syllabus Readings.


Week 4

Human Behavior in Critical Incidents Part II (Warning and Evacuations)

Read or Review

Module 2: Human Behavior in Critical Incidents: the following parts of the commentary:
Part II: Common Misconceptions about Critical Incident Behavior: The Myth: Warning, Evacuation and Sheltering Behavior
Part II: Common Misconceptions about Critical Incident Behavior: The Myth: Responders Will Fail to Report for Duty
Part III: Summary and Limitations
O’Brien P.W. (2003). Risk Communication and Public Warning Response to the September 11th Attack on the World Trade Center, In Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, Public Entity Risk Institute, and Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems.;jsessionid=9B05804AF7BBA70B5D23F9F6E5777512?doi=
Trainor, J. & Barsky, L. Reporting for duty? A synthesis of research on role conflict, strain, and abandonment among emergency responders during disasters and catastrophes. Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware.
Lindell, M., Prater, C. Perry, R. (2006, July 15). Myths and realities of household disaster response. From the Fundamentals of Emergency Management Course Federal Emergency Management Center, EMI,,d.eW0 (downloads a file)
Quarantelli, E.L. (1990). The warning process and evacuation behavior: The research evidence preliminary paper #148. Newark, DE: University of Delaware – Disaster Research Center
Stallings, R. (1984). Evacuation behavior at Three Mile Island, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 2, 11-26.
Sheppard, B., Janoske, M., & Liu, B. (2012, May). Understanding risk communication theory: A guide for emergency managers and communicators.
National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Resources. (2000). Effective Disaster Warnings. Washington, DC: GPO (p. 15-39)




Information and Media in Crisis Response

Read or Review

Module 3: Organizations in Critical Incident Response: the following parts of the commentary:
Part II: Organizational Interface with the Community: Communicating with the Public in Critical Incidents
Part III: Summary
Lindsay, B.R. (2011). Social Media and Disasters: Current Uses, Future Options, and Policy Considerations. Report# R41987, Washington, D.C: Congressional Research Service
Covello, V. (n.d.). Effective Risk and Crisis Communication during Water Security Emergencies.,d.cWc
Paul, S. (2012, April 9). How Social Media is Changing Disaster Response.
Course Resources: eReserves: Clarke, L. et al. (2006). Speaking with One Voice: Risk Communication Lessons from the US Anthrax Attacks, Journal of Contingency and Crisis Management, 14(3).

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