Training and Development

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Training and Development

Training and Development and the Role of the I/O Psychologist. Training and development are critical to the wellbeing of all public and private organizations. The training programs are important on an organizational level, job level, as well as a personal level for employees. A qualified industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologist can create a training program.

This allows the individual organization’s employees to be more successful. In the business of commercial airline pilots, effective training programs crucial to meet the safety standards required by the FAA. Evidently, applying the I/O psychology training and development principles to the commercial airline pilot training programs has benefits. These benefits play a critical role in maintaining the integrity and safety required in such a delicate position.

Training and Development

Steps in an Effective Training Program

The Federal Aviation Administration provides great insight into the types of training, regulations, and certifications needed to become a pilot (FAA, 2016). Likely, an I/O psychologist created most of the training programs though it is unusual for them to provide the actual training as they are generally behind the scenes and leave the training to be done by qualified professionals.

The five steps of an effective training program are “conduct training needs assessment, set objectives, design training, deliver training, and evaluate training.” Moreover, a quality needs assessment is a vital part of an effective training program and the “what and who should be trained ” must be considered. A great example of the need for the “what and who” is apparent in the case of commercial airline pilots as a pilot trained in flying a small private plane may not have the skills needed to safely fly a mid-size commercial airliner.

Training and Development: Training Methods, Benefits of Training
Training and Development

Training levels

There are three training levels to a needs assessment —organization level, job level, and person level. The purpose of a needs assessment is to specify employee training needs. The training levels assist employers in determining the focus of the instructional content. Obviously, the organization level focuses on the organization’s objectives about the employee. The job level attention aimed at the nature of individuals tasks specific to each job.

Lastly, the person level focal point represents the success of the job task performed by current and future employees. Evidently, for the position of a commercial airline pilot, safety is the number one job component. Thus, the job level training level would seem appropriate with the significant amount of focus on identifying the major tasks and the necessary KSAOs for current and future pilots. The training levels help to establish a baseline assessment of particular needs that should be the focus of organizational training.

Training and Development

Needs Assessments

A needs assessment uses a systematic process that investigate current and future employee’s training needed for job success. The goals of doing a needs assessment are to make sure that training programs implemented meet the targeted goal. This effort require that the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) thoroughly analyzed and rated due to its importance. After identification of the KSAOs for the position, the employer begins to craft training objectives.

Including a definitive statement of expected trainee results and outcomes helps in achieving the training objectives. These results will enable the employer to offer feedback and additional training to employees that are deficient in specific areas.  Obviously, conducting needs assessments is extremely important to the position of a commercial airline pilot with the enormous job responsibility that it entails.  Many organizations fail to conduct a needs assessment. Certainly, due to the high stakes involved in the airline industry, it would seem that a needs assessment would be standard operating practice.  

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Training and Development

Design and Delivery

Understanding training design and delivery methods is critical in ensuring that the training meets its set objectives. Training design entail developing of educational courses, lessons and new training for a given set of employees. It is imperative to understand the design factors which affect the transfers of training. Besides, the training design and delivery method which will be applied in the case study is the use of simulations.

Simulation by definition represents technique whereby specialized materials and equipment are used to portray a task situation. Commercial piloting is a technical job and hence it will be imperative to test how the pilot will navigate difficult situations through simulations. Through the use of computer based approaches, it is possible to test a pilots abilities and skills based on a real life situations which affects the aviation industry. Furthermore, simulations allow for active participation of both parties which helps in assessing the areas which have gaps.

Training and Development

Evaluation Methods

When it comes to the evaluation of a training method, I/O Psychologists suggest that the program is not completed until the effectiveness has been evaluated. The evaluation represents a piece of research that helps to determine attainment of the intended effects. Along with this, both the training level and performance level criteria are measured and work hand in hand.

Airline pilots would benefit from the five evaluation methods. The first is to develop criteria, second and third are to choose the design and measures, fourth is to collect the data and lastly, analyze and interpret the results. Furthermore, airline pilots require a lot of “hands on” experience in conjunction with written training, so a learning criteria evaluation method seems appropriate. Trainees show capabilities in a behavioral manner, the skills and knowledge acquired in training.

Learning And Development: Anyone Can Do It… Right? - eLearning Industry

Training and Development


The training steps are significant in identifying so that the retention and understanding of its importance can be emphasized. In being able to identify the various steps to an effective training program, it becomes clearer that the steps well thought out and taken into consideration. This process considers the different aspects of the job as well as retaining of the information. Lastly, laying out a clear path makes it easy for appropriate and effective application of a training method.

Training and Development

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