Week 6 Discussion

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resources on your own before you bid. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. APA format also requires headings. Use the prompt each week to guide your heading titles and organize the content of your initial post under the appropriate headings. Remember to use scholarly research from peer-reviewed articles that is current. Please follow the instructions to get full credit for the discussion. I need this completed by 07/08/20 at 8pm. McLennan County is my county. I have attached the project paper.

Discussion – Week 6

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Social Change Portfolio: Part 4: Diversity and Ethical Considerations

As you consider your community problem, is there a segment of the community that may be impacted more than others? Are there issues related to the diversity of this group, and does this raise ethical considerations?

For this Discussion, you will explore the challenges related to evidence-based and culturally relevant prevention as it applies to diverse populations within your targeted community problem. You also will uncover any ethical considerations you might need to further examine as it relates to the practice of prevention for your targeted problem.

To Prepare

  • Review the Learning Resources for this week and      consider Diversity and Ethical      Considerations as they relate to the diverse      population in your targeted community problem.
  • Create a section in your Social Change Portfolio      called “Part 4: “Diversity and Ethical      Considerations”
  • Conduct a literature review and/or a review of local      public health data to identify a specific population (such as LGBT, ethnic      minority, etc.) that is affected by the target problem in your community.      Cite at least 2 peer-reviewed sources. For example, if your target problem      is teenage substance abuse then your broad population is teens. Then,      include the following:
    • Identify a particular subgroup       within that population (e.g., males, a specific ethnic minority group,       etc.) that is impacted by this problem in a different way or at increased       rates.
    • Describe the unique impact or       different rates of the problem among this group.
  • Based on your research, briefly describe 2 to 3      mechanisms to increase the cultural relevance of a prevention program with      the identified population.
  • Briefly describe some of the core ethical      considerations in prevention programming for this target problem in your      community including stakeholder collaboration, informed consent, and      confidentiality.

Note: For the purposes of this course, your focus is to develop a plan, but not to actually implement the project. In goal setting, consider what is truly achievable. A vast goal such as, “eliminate teen substance abuse in my community,” is unrealistic.

Instead, a goal such as “increase awareness of teen substance abuse and identify resources and a plan to reduce teen substance abuse” is more realistic.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

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Required Resources

Hage, S., & Romano, J. L. (2013). Best practices in prevention. In R. K. Conyne & A. M. Horne (Eds.). Prevention practice kit: Action guides for mental health professionals (pp. 32-46). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Vera, E. M., & Kenny, M. E. (2013). Social justice and culturally relevant prevention. In R. K. Conyne & A. M. Horne (Eds.). Prevention practice kit: Action guides for mental health professionals (pp. 1-59). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

American Counseling Association (2014). 2014 ACA Code of Ethics. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/Resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf

County Health Rankings & Roadmaps (2018). How healthy is your community? Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/.

Required Media

Walden Scholars of Change (2016). Giving incarcerated women a second chance. https://www.waldenu.edu/connect/video-and-multimedia/social-change/scholars-of-change/2016-winners/giving-incarcerated-women-a-second-chance



COUN 6785: Social Change in Action:

Prevention, Consultation, and Advocacy

Social Change Portfolio



























Below are the titles for each section of the Social Change Portfolio. To navigate directly to a particular section, hold down <ctrl> and click on the desired section below.




Scope and Consequences


Social-ecological Model


Theories of Prevention


Diversity and Ethical Considerations






Lack of Resources for Black Community with Mental Health Problems in Waco, Texas.


In Waco, Texas African Americans experience severe forms of mental health problems due to unmet needs. African Americans are more likely to socio-economic disparities that contribute to worst mental health problems. According to Health and Human Services office in regard to minority health, the experience of serious psychological distress is experienced 10% among the Black community. The resources available in Waco cannot be accessed by people of color because discrimination is dominant. Socio-economic play a crucial role in making treatment options for African Americans less available. 11% of African Americans in 2017 lacked health insurance in Waco, (CHNA, 2018). There is need to increase resources in Waco for African Americans with mental health problems.




Lack of Resources for Black Community with Mental Health Problems in Waco, Texas.


Millions of people are affected by mental illness every year in the United States. Suicide is reported as the second cause of deaths in the U.S that are connected to mental health problems that are not attended to. In 2017, 46.6 million adults which is 18.9% had mental illneses. African Americans affected were 28.6% and whites were 20.4%, (NAMI. (n.d). In 2020, mental illnesses have spurred due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its been overlooked which worsens the mental health position of Waco and national government generally.

Consequences of mental health issues include; Untreated mental health impedes an individual’s ability to make healthy decisions. It can lead to development of diseases and complications such as high blood pressure, cancer and heart diseases or complications. The families of people with mental illneses are likely to strain economically and emotional distress. Mental illneses impedes an individual’s ability to work productively and cope with stress appropriately, (Dich, et.al, 2019). The prospects of employment decline are due to mental health issues in Waco. The national economy is affected as a result and working age benefit costs are also compromised. In Waco, Texas, the rising cases of mental illness among the African Americans is attributed by the challenge of unmet needs. African Americans face the issue of racism and discrimination that limits their opportunities to get job opportunities, resources to meet their daily needs and also lack health insurance to handle mental health problems. Poverty and segregation faced by the African Americans are the root causes of mental illness. The consequence of lack of access to services in Waco increases cases of mental illness that pushes victims to engage in substance abuse or suffer from diseases like high blood pressure. Inadequate services in the community including education increase the rate of illiteracy that pushes the people to suffer from stress created by discrimination like mental health without knowing the causes. Awareness and mental health promotion is necessary for Waco to enlighten the community concerning mental health and also alert the government to provide services to the people (Raczynski et.al.. 2013)

Goal Statement: The black community with mental health problems in Waco deserve access to mental health care services through provision of resources to reduce its prevalence in the community.



[Insert Title of Social Change Project here]


Individual factors that impact mental health in this community include age, education levels where only 80% of adults in Waco have a high school degree and household income and unemployment rates are higher in Waco. Relationship with social environment of an individual plays a role in mental health prevalence in the community, (CDC, n.d). The community lacks resources to cater for the needs of African Americans with mental health issues. Society generally contributes to the discrimination of the African American in mental health care because it is rooted in our culture. This paper discusses how the social-ecological model can be used to help prevent this problem.


Some protective factors for mental health problems include improved nutrition, improved housing, and improved daily exercises. When this type of individual eats well and does exercises, it’s fortunate that this illness cannot infect him/her.

Some of the most common risk factors for mental health disorders include living a life full of stress, for example, due to financial and unemployment problems (McCormack et al. 2017). Drug and substance abuse are also risk factors that can generate this problem—even distressed sleep. Anxiety and depression are also individual built.


Some protective factors for mental illness at this level include good parenting whereby parents can be drawn close to parents, express love, and give advice (Baiyewu & Bello, 2017). Also, family connectedness helps the individual and the family unite, interact, and converse to reach agreements.

Risk factors include histories of mental illness whereby family members might have had the same problems. Also, factors such as poverty, marital difficulties such as divorce, poor communication between an individual and a family member, and parents’ substance abuse co-occur (Baiyewu & Bello, 2017). Child abuse is also a factor that can result in this illness.

Peer groups

Peer groups play a crucial role here because they can provide positive attitudes as well as beliefs. Also, to ensure the mentally ill person is thriving at school, they can be of help at all places where the individual needs assistance, for example, academically-oriented friends can help in studies. They ensure they motivate the individual by providing conflict of resolution skills.

Risk factors that the peer group plays include engaging an individual who is mentally ill in activities such as substance and drug abuse (Jorm & Mulder, 2018). Some activities are so deviant and are caused by friends. Peer groups can also participate in bullying this kind of individuals, thus making it a risk factor for mental health problems.


The community can help by endorsing an optimistic mental health atmosphere, which can be done by providing education. Also, training sessions can promote recovery for these individuals. Mental health promotion is another way that can be used to deal with this problem because it impacts mental health determinants, thus reducing inequalities and building social capital (Jorm & Mulder, 2018). Also, there is strengthening community networks and reducing economic security.

Some risk factors include discrimination that makes a particular individual or group feel as not part of the community. Neighborhood violence and crimes are also risk factors that expose these kinds of individuals to more significant risks. Even unemployment and lack of education as well.




[Insert Title of Social Change Project here]


Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is the theory that I consider appropriate for the prevention of mental illness contributed by the socio-economic disparities contributed by unequal distribution of resources. “The components of SCT that related to an individual behavior change include the self-efficacy, self-control, expectancies and goals” (RHI Hub, 2020). The theory is best for the prevention of mental illness in Waco by focusing on the self-efficacy and self-control components where an individual monitors other people actions and judge based on the benefits and also learn from their own experiences. SCT theory would transform the society to focus on the positive aspects of life and continue focusing on their individual goals. An example is the application of SCT skill-building exercise to increase independence and healthy behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS (RHI Hub, 2020).






[Insert Title of Social Change Project here]


[Insert the content for this section here. See the instructions for the Diversity and Ethical Considerations section in Week 6 and follow the instructions for this section closely. Be sure to attend to all bullet-points for this section found in the “To Prepare” area in week 6. Please write in full sentences using APA style].





[Insert Title of Social Change Project here]


[Insert the content for this section here. See the instructions for the Advocacy section in Week 7 and follow the instructions this section closely. Be sure to attend to all bullet-points for this section found in the “To Prepare” area in week 7. Please write in full sentences using APA style].




Baiyewu, O., & Bello, B. (2017). Primary Mental Health Prevention—A Public Health Priority Around the World. In Global Mental Health (pp. 79-88). Springer, Cham. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-59123-0_8

CDC. (n.d). The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Prevention. Reterieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/publichealthissue/social-ecologicalmodel.html

CHNA. (2018). Waco-McLennan County Community Health Needs Assessment 2018-2019. Retrieved from https://www.waco-texas.com/userfiles/cms-healthdepartment/file/2018-19%20McLennan%20CHNA%20Final%20Report.pdf

Jorm, A. F., & Mulder, R. T. (2018). Prevention of mental disorders requires action on adverse childhood experiences. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry52(4), 316-319. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0004867418761581

McCormack, L., Thomas, V., Lewis, M. A., & Rudd, R. (2017). Improving low health literacy and patient engagement: a social ecological approach. Patient education and counseling100(1), 8-13. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0738399116303020

NAMI. (n.d). Black/African American. Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/Your-Journey/Identity-and-Cultural-Dimensions/Black-African-American

National Cancer Institute (2005). Theory at a glance: A guide for health promotion practice. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: National Institutes of Health. https://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/research/theories_project/theory.pdf

Raczynski, K., Waldo, M., Schwartz, J. P., & Horne (2013). Evidence-based prevention. In R. K. Conyne & A. M. Horne (Eds.). Prevention practice kit: Action guides for mental health professionals (pp. 1-83). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

RHI Hub. (2020). Social Cognitive Theory Model – Rural Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Toolkit. Ruralhealthinfo.org. Retrieved 6 July 2020, from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/2/theories-and-models/social-cognitive

U.S. National Library of Medicine (2018). Health data tools and statistics. Retrieved from https://phpartners.org/health_stats.html. 

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