Of the following research topics, which is most likely to be an observational study?
The relationship between hours of exercise and sleep.
The difference in minutes a day exercising between boys and girls.
The types of exercise students engage in after school.
Students’ feelings about after-school track practice.
Correlational research allows the researcher to answer questions such as:
what is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B?
does change in Variable A cause change in Variable B?
is there a significant difference between scores on Variable A and scores on Variable B?
does change in Variable B causes change in Variable A?
Which of the following is an example of a good research question for a correlational study?
What are the attitudes of the parents about our districts new homework policy?
Is there a relationship between student achievement and homework completion?
Are there differences in parent attitudes about homework between mothers and fathers?
How much homework does the average fifth grade teacher in our district assign?
Advantages of questionnaires include all of the following EXCEPT:
large numbers of people can be contacted for a relatively low cost.
data can be gathered from a large number of people in a relatively short period of time.
participants may feel more confident about their anonymity and therefore respond more honestly.
because questions are in written form, they are less likely to be misunderstood by respondents.
Regarding the length of questionnaires to be used in survey research, which of the following statements is most accurate?
Including a large number of items on the survey assures that you will get useful data for all of your trouble.
Keeping the survey short makes it more likely people will be willing to complete it.
A relatively lengthy survey communicates your seriousness about the research endeavor so people will be more willing to complete it.
Shorter surveys produce data that are ambiguous and therefore not useful.
Qualitative research often involves what’s known as an iterative process for data collection and analysis. This terminology refers to the fact that, in qualitative research:
researchers focus more on narrative data than on statistics and numbers.
researchers typically do not begin by stating a hypothesis.
researchers may collect and analyze data, then collect and analyze some more data.
researchers first ask open-ended questions and then follow up with probing questions.
In this type of study design, a particular group of individuals is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
In this type of study design, the researcher studies the deep meaning an event or situation holds for other people.
Carl Compost has been living and working on a communal organic farm for the past six months. He wants to understand the political, environmental, and social perspectives shared by the members of the commune. Dr. Compost is probably employing which of the following qualitative research designs?
Daniel Daring is an emerging playwright whose works have begun to stir great passions in the major U.S. cities where they are staged. Researcher Eugenia Edge is “shadowing” Mr. Daring for six months in an attempt to understand the artistic process. Dr. Edge is probably employing which of the following qualitative research designs?
Helen Heartwell flew to New York City a few weeks after the September 11, 2001, bombing of the World Trade Center. She wanted to know how the victims of the attack were making sense of what had happened to them. Dr. Heartwell is probably employing which of the following qualitative research designs?
The technique of participant observation is most associated with:
Qualitative researchers often begin by asking themselves, “What needs to be studied?” and then collect preliminary data that helps to develop a more focused research question and a plan for later data collection. This type of design is known as:
case study design
mixed methods design
Qualitative researchers can best address concerns about validity in their study design and their data by:
collecting some quantitative data
ensuring that all participants provide informed consent
use one objective, reliable method for collecting data
comparing different data sources to see if they provide consistent results
Effective qualitative interviews usually require that the researcher:
adhere to set of questions determined in advance.
maintain an informal, friendly atmosphere.
remain as objective and detached as possible.
interview several participants at one time.